Ontology, part-whole relations, isiZulu and culture

The title is a mouthful, but it can go together. What’s interesting, is that the ‘common’ list of part-whole relations are not exactly like that in isiZulu and Zulu culture.

Part-whole relations have been proposed over the past 30 years, such as to relate a human heart to the human it is part of, that Gauteng is located in South Africa (geographically a part of), and the slice of the cake is a portion of the cake, and they seemed well-established by now. The figure below provides an informal view of it.

Informal taxonomy of common part-whole relations (source: [2])

My co-author, Langa Khumalo, and I already had an inkling this hierarchy probably would not work for isiZulu, based, first, on a linguistic analysis to generate natural language [1], and, second, the Shuter & Shooter English-isiZulu dictionary already lists 18 translations for just ‘part’ alone. Yet, if those ‘common’ part-whole relations are universal, the differences observed ought to be just an artefact of language, not ontological differences. To clear up the matter, we guided ourselves with the following questions:

  1. Which part-whole relations have been named in isiZulu, and to what extent are they not only lexically but also semantically distinct?
  2. Can all those part-whole relations be mapped with equivalence relations to the common part-whole relations?
  3. For those that cannot be mapped with equivalence relations: is the difference in meaning ontologically possibly interesting for ontology engineering?
  4. Is there something different as gleaned from isiZulu part-whole relations that is useful in improving the theoretical appreciation of part-whole relations?

To figure this out, we first took a bottom-up approach with evidence gathering, and then augmented it with further ontological analysis. Plodding though the isiZulu-English dictionaries got us 81 terms that had something to do with parts. 41 were discarded because they were not applicable upon closer inspection (e.g., referring to creating parts cf. relating parts, idioms). Further annotations and examples were added, which reduced it to 28 (+ 3 we had missed and were added). Of those 28, we selected 13 for ontological analysis and formalisation. That selection was based on importance (like ingxenye) and some of them that seemed a bit overly specific, like iqatha for portions of meat, and meat only. The hierarchy of the final selection is shown in the figure below, with an informal indication of what the relation relates.

Selected isiZulu terms with informal descriptions. (Source: [2])

They held up ontologically, i.e., some are the same as the ‘common’ ones, yet some others are really different, like the hlanganyela for a collective (cf. individual object) being part of (participating in) an event. Admitted, some of the domains/ranges aren’t very clearly delineated. For instance, isiqephu relates solid and ‘solid-like’ portions, as in, e.g., Zonke izicezu zesinkwa ziyisiqephu sesinkwa esisodwa ‘all slices of bread are a portion of some loaf of bread’. Where exactly that border of ‘solid-like’ is and when it really counts as a liquid (and thus isiqephu applies no more), is not yet clear—that’s a separate question orthogonal to the relation. Nonetheless, the investigation did clear up several things, especially the more precise umunxa that took me a while to unravel, which turned out to be a chain of parthood relations; e.g., the area where the fireplace is in the hut is a portion of the hut (sample use with the verbaliser: Onke amaziko angumunxa wexhiba). We didn’t touch upon really thorny issues that probably will deserve a paper of their own. For instance, the temporalised parthood isihlephu is used to relate a meaningful scattered part with identity to the whole it was part of, such as the broken-off ear of a cup that was part of the cup (but it cannot be used for the chip of the cup, as a chip isn’t identifiable in the same way as the ear is).

We did try to test the terms against the isiZulu National Corpus to see how the terms are used, but with the limited functionalities and tooling, not as much came out of it as we had hoped for. In any case, the detailed assessment of a section of the corpus did show the relevant uses were not contradicting the formalisation.

Further details can be found in our paper “On the ontology of part-whole relations in Zulu language and culture” that will be presented at the 10th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems 2018 (FOIS’18) that will be held from 17 to 21 September in Cape Town, South Africa.

As far as I know, this is the first such investigation. Checking out other languages a bit (mainly Spanish and German), and some related works on Turkish and Chinese, it might be the case that also there the ‘common’ part-whole relations may not be exactly the same. We carried out whole process systematically, which is described as such in the paper, so that anyone who’d like to do something like this for another language region and culture, could follow the same procedure.

 

References

[1] Keet, C.M., Khumalo, L. On the verbalization patterns of part-whole relations in isiZulu. 9th International Natural Language Generation conference (INLG’16), September 5-8, 2016, Edinburgh, UK. ACL, 174-183.

[2] Keet, C.M., Khumalo, L. On the ontology of part-whole relations in Zulu language and culture. 10th International Conference on Formal Ontology in Information Systems 2018 (FOIS’18). IOS Press. 17-21 September, 2018, Cape Town, South Africa. (in print)

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Not sorry at all—Review of “Sorry, not Sorry” by Haji Dawjee

Some papers are in the review pipeline for longer than they ought to be and the travel-part of conference attendance is a good opportunity to read books. So, instead of writing more about research, here’s a blogpost with a book review instead, being Sorry, not sorry—Experiences of a brown woman in a white South Africa by South African journalist Haji Mohamed Dawjee. It’s one of those books I bought out of curiosity, as the main title intrigued me on two aspects. First, it contradicts—if you’re not sorry, then don’t apologise for not doing so. Second, the subtitle, as it can be useful to read what people who don’t get much media coverage have to say. It turned out to have been published only last month, so let me break with the usual pattern and write a review now rather than wait until the usual January installments

The book contains 20 essays of Dawjee’s experiences broadly and with many specific events, and reflections thereof, on growing up and working in South Africa. Depending on your background, you’ll find more or less recognisable points in it, or perhaps none at all and you’ll just eat the whole spiced dish served, but if you’re a woke South African white or think of yourself as a do-gooder white, you probably won’t like certain sections of it. As it is not my intention to write a very long review, I’ve picked a few essays to comment on, but there’s no clear single favourite among the essays. There are two essays that I think the book could have done without, but well, I suppose the author is asserting something with it that has something to do with the first essay and that I’m just missing the point. That first essay is entitled ‘We don’t really write what we like’ and relates back to Biko’s statement and essay collection I write what I like, not the Writing what we like essay collection of 2016. It describes the media landscape, the difficulties of people of colour to get published, and that their articles are always expected to have some relevance and insight—“having to be on the frontlines of critical thinking”—rather than some drivel that white guys can get away with, as “We too have nice experiences. We think about things and dream and have magic in us. We have fuzzy fables to share.”. Dawjee doesn’t consider such airy fairy stories by the white guys to be brave, but exhibiting opportunity an privilege, and she wants to have that opportunity and privilege, too. This book, however, is mainly of the not-drivel and making-a-point sort of writing rather than flowery language devoid of a message.

For instance, what it was like from the journalism side when Mandela died, and the magazine she was working for changing her story describing a successful black guy into one “more Tsotsi-like”, because “[t]he obvious reason for the editorial manipulation was that no-one wanted a story of a good black kid. Only white kids are intrinsically exceptional.” (discussed in the essay ‘The curious case of the old white architect’). Several essays describe unpleasant behind-the-scenes experiences in journalism, such as at YOU magazine, and provide a context to her article Maid in South Africa that had as blurb “White people can walk their dogs, but not their children”, which apparently had turned out to cause a shitstorm on social media. There was an opinion-piece response by one of Dawjee’s colleagues, “coming to my ‘rescue’” and who “needed to whitesplain my thoughts and sanitise them with her ‘wokeness’” (p190). It’s a prelude to finishing off with a high note (more about that further below), and illustrates one of the recurring topics—the major irritation with the do-gooders, woke whites, the ones who put themselves in the ‘good whites’ box and ‘liberal left’, but who nonetheless still contribute to systemic racism. This relates to Biko’s essay on the problems with white liberals and similar essays in his I write what I like, there described as category, and in Dawjee’s book illustrated with multiple examples.

 

In an essay quite different in style, ‘Why I’m down with Downtown Abbey’ (the TV series), Dawjee revels in the joys of seeing white servants doing the scurrying around, cooking, cleaning etc for the rich. On the one hand, knowing a little of South African society by now, understandable. On the other hand, it leaves me wondering just how much messed up the media is that people here still (this is not the first or second time I came across this topic) seem to think that up in Europe most or all families also have maids and gardeners. They don’t. As one Irish placard had put it, “clean up your own shite” is the standard, as is DIY gardening and cooking. Those chores, or joys, are done by the women, children, and men of the nuclear family, not hired helps.

Related to that latter point—who’s doing the chores—two essays have to do with feminism and Islam. The essay title ‘And how the women of Islam did slay’ speaks for itself. And, yes, as Dawjee says, it cannot be repeated often enough that there were strong, successful, and intelligent women at the bedrock of Islam and women actually do have rights (unlike under Christianity); in case you want some references on women’s rights under Islam, have a look at the essay I wrote a while a go about it. ‘My mother, the true radical’ touches upon notions of feminism and who gets to decide who is feminist when and in what way.

 

I do not quite agree with Dawjee’s conclusion drawn from her Tinder experiences in ‘Tinder is a pocket full of rejection, in two parts’. On p129 she writes “Tinder in South Africa is nothing but fertile ground for race-based rejection.”. If it were a straightforward case of just race-based swiping, then, statistically, I should have had lots of matches with SA white guys, as I surely look white with my pale skin, blue eyes, and dark blonde hair (that I ended up in the 0.6% ‘other’ box in the SA census in 2011 is a separate story). But, nada. In my 1.5 years of Tinder experiment in Cape Town, I never ever got a match with a white guy from SA either, but plenty of matches with blacks, broad and narrow. I still hypothesise that the lack of matches with the white guys is because I list my employer, which scares away men who do not like women who’ve enjoyed some higher education, as it has scared away countless men in several other countries as well. Having educated oneself out of the marriage market, it is also called. There’s a realistic chance that a majority of those South African whites that swiped left on Dawjee are racist, but, sadly, their distorted views on humanity include insecurities on more than one front, and I’m willing to bet that Dawjee having an honours degree under her belt will have contributed to it. That said, two anecdotes doesn’t make data, and an OKCupid-type of analysis like Rudder’s Dataclysm (review) but then of Tinder data would be interesting so as to get to the bottom of that.

 

The two, imho, skippable essays are “Joining a cult is a terrible idea” (duh) and “Depression: A journal”. I’m not into too personal revelations, and would have preferred a general analysis on how society deals, or not, with mental illness, or, if something more concrete, to relate it to, say, the Life Esidimeni case from whichever angle.

 

Meandering around through the various serious subtopics and digressions, as a whole, the essays combine into chronicling the road taken by Dawjee to decolonise her mind, culminating in a fine series of statements in the last part of the last essay. She is not sorry for refusing to be a doormat, saying so, and the consequences that that will have for those who perpetuate and benefit from systemic racism, and she now lives from a position of strength rather than struggling and doubting as a receiver of it.

 

Overall, it was an interesting book and worthwhile to have read. The writing style is very accessible, so one can read the whole book in a day or so. In case you are still unsure whether you want to read it or not: there are free book extracts of ‘We don’t really write what we like’, ‘Begging to be white?’, and ‘And how the women of Islam did slay’ and, at the time of writing this blog post, one written review on News24 and Eusebius McKaiser’s Radio 702 interview with Dawjee (both also positive about the book).

‘Problem shopping’ and networking at IST-Africa’18 in Gaborone

There are several local and regional conferences in (Sub-Saharan) Africa with a focus on Africa in one way or another, be it for, say, computer science and information systems in (mainly) South Africa, computer networks in Africa, or for (computer) engineers. The IST-Africa series covers a broad set of topics and papers must explicitly state how and where all that research output is good for within an African context, hence, with a considerable proportion of the scope within the ICT for Development sphere. I had heard from colleagues it was a good networking opportunity, one of my students had obtained some publishable results during her CS honours project that could be whipped into paper-shape [1], I hadn’t been to Botswana before, and I’m on sabbatical so have some time. To make a long story short: the conference just finished, and I’ll write a bit about the experiences in the remainder of this post.

First, regarding the title of the post: I’m not quite an ICT4D researcher, but I do prefer to work on computer science problems that are based on actual problems that don’t have a solution yet, rather than invented toy examples. A multitude of papers presented at the conference were elaborate on problem specification, like them having gone out in the field and done the contextual inquiries, attitude surveys, and the like so as to better understand the multifaceted problems themselves before working toward a solution that will actually work (cf. the white elephants littered around on the continent). So, in a way, the conference also doubled in a ‘problem shopping’ event, though note that many solutions were presented as well. Here’s a brief smorgasbord of them:

  • Obstacles to eLearning in, say, Tanzania: internet access (40% only), lack of support, lack of local digital content, and too few data-driven analyses of experiments [2].
  • Digital content for healthcare students and practitioners in WikiTropica [3], which has the ‘usual’ problems of low resource needs (e.g., a textbook with lots of pictures but has to work on the mobile phone or tablet nonetheless), the last mile, and language. Also: the question of how to get people to participate to develop such resources? That’s still an open question; students of my colleague Hussein Suleman have been trying to figure out how to motivate them. As to the 24 responses by participants to the question “…Which incentive do you need?” the results were: 7 money/devices, 7 recognition, 4 none, 4 humanity/care/usefulness, 1 share & learn, and 1 not sure (my encoding).

    Content collaboration perceptions

    information sharing perceptions

    With respect to practices and attitudes toward information sharing, the answers were not quite encouraging (see thumbnails). Of course, all this is but a snapshot, but still.

  • The workshop on geospatial sciences & land administration had a paper on building a national database infrastructure that wasn’t free of challenges, among others: buying data is costly, available data but no metadata, privacy issues, data collected and cant ask for consent again for repurposing of that data (p16) [4].
  • How to overcome the (perceived to be the main) hurdle of lack of trust in electronic voting in Kenya [5]. In Thiga’s case, they let the students help coding the voting software and kept things ‘offline’ with a local network in the voting room and the server in sight [5]. There were lively comments in the whole session on voting (session 8c), including privacy issues, auditability, whether blockchain could help (yes on auditability and also anonymity, but consumes a lot of [too much?] electricity, according to a Namibian delegate also in attendance), and scaling up to the population or not (probably not for a while, due to digital literacy and access issues, in addition to the trust issue). The research and experiments continue.
  • Headaches of data integration in Buffalo City to get the water billing information system working properly [6]. There are the usual culprits in system integration from the information systems viewpoint (e.g., no buy-in by top management or users) that were held against the case in the city (cf. the CS side of the equation, like noisy data, gaps, vocabulary alignment etc.). Upon further inquiry, specific issues came to the surface, like not reading the water meters for several years and having been paying some guesstimate all the while, and issues that have to do with interaction between paying water (one system) and electricity (another system) cause problems for customers also when they have paid, among others [6]. A framework was proposed, but that hasn’t solved the actual data integration problem.

There were five parallel sessions over the three days (programme), so there are many papers to check out still.

As to networking with people in Africa, it was good especially to meet African ontologists and semantic web enthusiasts, and learn of the Botswana National Productivity Centre (a spellchecker might help, though needing a bit more research for seTswana then), and completely unrelated ending up bringing up the software-based clicker system we developed a few years ago (and still works). The sessions were well-attended—most of us having seen monkeys and beautiful sunsets, done game drives and such—and for many it was a unique opportunity, ranging from lucky postgrads with some funding to professors from the various institutions. A quick scan through the participants list showed that relatively many participants are affiliated with institutions from South Africa, Botswana, Tanzania, Kenya, and Uganda, but also a few from Cameroon, Burkina Faso, Senegal, Angola, and Malawi, among others, and a few from outside Africa, such as the USA, Finland, Canada, and Germany. There was also a representative from the EU’s DEVCO and from GEANT (the one behind Eduroam). Last, but not least, not only the Minister of Transport and Communication, Onkokame Kitso, was present at the conference’s opening ceremony, but also the brand new—39 days and counting—President of Botswana, Mokgweetsi Masisi.

No doubt there will be a 14th installment of the conference next year. The paper deadline tends to be in December and extended into January.

 

References

(papers are now only on the USB stick but will appear in IEEE Xplore soon)

[1] Mjaria F, Keet CM. A statistical approach to error correction for isiZulu spellcheckers. IST-Africa 2018.

[2] Mtebe J, Raphael C. A critical review of eLearning Research trends in Tanzania. IST-Africa 2018.

[3] Kennis J. WikiTropica: collaborative knowledge management in the field of tropical medicine and international health. IST-Africa 2018.

[4] Maphanyane J, Nkwae B, Oitsile T, Serame T, Jakoba K. Towards the Building of a Robust National Database Infrastructure (NSDI) Developing Country Needs: Botswana Case Study. IST-Africa 2018.

[5] Thiga M, Chebon V, Kiptoo S, Okumu E, Onyango D. Electronic Voting System for University Student Elections: The Case of Kabarak University, Kenya. IST-Africa 2018.

[6] Naki A, Boucher D, Nzewi O. A Framework to Mitigate Water Billing Information Systems Integration Challenges at Municipalities. IST-Africa 2018.

Book reviews for 2017

The third, and probably for a while last, post in a row that has not much, or even nothing, to do with my current job and research interest: the seventh installment of short book reviews and opinions on a selection of fiction and non-fiction books I read last year.

Non-Fiction

Dataclysm by Christian Rudder (2014). This is a highly entertaining book about some interesting aspects of Data Science. The author, one of the founders of the dating site OkCupid, takes his pile of OkCupid data and data from some other sources, and plays with it. What do those millions of up- and down-votes and match answers reveal? What’s the difference between what people say in surveys and how they behave online on the dating site? A lot, it appears. The book makes the anonymised aggregates fun and look harmless rather than Big Brother-like to haunt an individual. A bunch of people copy-and-paste messages, but it doesn’t seem to matter for replies and interaction. Looks matter, a lot, but weirdness, too. You’re a women over, say, 25 and the man says you’re gorgeous? Probably lying: they dig the looks of 20-year old women most, no matter how old they are. The portion of people identifying as gay correlates with societal and legal acceptance of same-sex relationships and marriages. And so on. One has to bear in mind that the conclusions drawn from the data should be seen in the light of self-selection (are the OkCupid members average in the sense of collectively being like the whole population?), that pattern-finding is different from hypothesis testing, and accidental data is different from collecting data in a controlled setting. That said, it’s still interesting to read about what the data says and it offers a peek into the kitchen of online dating sites.

What the dog saw by Malcom Gladwell (2009). It’s not nearly as good as the others. In a way, the narrative is the opposite of Dataclysm (as Rudder also discusses): Gladwell’s books are more about the peculiar particular and trying to generalise from that, whereas Rudder takes the aggregates over very large amounts of instances that is the general trend backed up by data rather than anecdotes (which isn’t the plural of data). Both books were very USA-centric, which became annoying in What the dog saw but not with Dataclysm.

Gastrophysics—the new science of eating by Charles Spence (2017). I’ve met people who can’t even believe there’s such thing as food science—an established applied science and engineering discipline—so perhaps the reader’s first response to the term ‘science of eating’ may be even less credulous. But sure enough, there’s truth to that. As the blurb about the book ended up longer than intended, it got its own blogpost: gastrophysics and follies. In short: the first part is very highly recommended reading.

I didn’t manage to finish Slavoj Zizek’s “Trouble in paradise—from the end of history to the end of capitalism”. There were fine parts in it, but there was too much rambling on too many pages, piling dialectical upon dialectical topped-off with upside-downs that the plot got lost and the logic missing. I searched online for book reviews of it, wondering if it was just me being too tired to concentrate, but turned out I’m not the only one. 17 contradictions and the end of capitalism by David Harvey was better (reviewed a few years ago).

Fiction

Indaba, my children—African tribal history, legends, customs and religious beliefs by Credo Mutwa (1964). This book was recommended to me with the note that although the author made it all up, for there are no such stories among the amaZulu, it is great storytelling and a must-read nonetheless. It is indeed. The first part chronicles in a fantastic way the story of creation and the first humans as a poem that is best read aloud for the most dramatic effect of the unexpected turns of events. Parts two and three see successive interactions with intruders and societies rising and falling, the organisation of society, their laws, customs, rites, and quests for power, with a bit of interference and nudging here and there by the goddesses, immortals, and the tree of life. Part four consists of reflections, events, stories, and criticisms of the recent past. Woven into these stories are how the things came to be as they are, such as the creation of the moon, the naming of the marimba (a type of xylophone), how/from where the Swazi and amaXhosa originate, and so on. The tome of almost 700 pages takes a while to finish; yet at the same time, one feels that loss once having finished a great book.

The drowning by Camila Lackberg (2012, translated from Swedish). This is a ‘whodunnit’ crime novel with twists and turns and even if you think near the end of the book that you know who’s behind the threats and murders, you’ll still be surprised, and perhaps somehow a bit sad, too. That much for spoilers. The general storyline has the novel set in a village in Sweden where village life seems idyllic, but all sorts of things are not what they seem—the ‘marital bliss’ that’s not so blissful after all, and so on. Christian Thydell published his first novel and gets great reviews, but has been receiving anonymous threats, and soon a few other men in the village get them as well. Gradually, a few people die or are murdered. Erica Falck sets out to uncover the truth informally, while her detective husband tries to do so in the official police investigation. With the cross-fertilisation of information, eventually the mystery is resolved.

How to fall in love by Cecelia Ahern (2014). I recall the time when Ahern’s first novel came out in Ireland, where the first reactions that she’d published a book was a like “well, bleh, but she’s the daughter of…” [the then Taoiseach ‘prime minister’, Bertie Ahern], yet then reviews came in like “actually, it’s really sweet/nice/quite good/etc.” and it ended up as an international bestseller and a movie (P.S. I love you). So, when I was recently in Ireland, I decided to buy one of her books to see for myself, which turned out to be her latest novel How to fall in love. Sounds just as cheesy, true, but the nutshell version of the story is quite grim. The protagonist, Christine Rose, talks a stranger (Adam) out of his suicide attempt with a deal: that she can convince him in two weeks’ time that life is worth living; if she can’t, then he still can go off and kill himself. She had just walked out of a relationship; he had found his fiancé cheating with his best friend (among other reasons why he wanted to kill himself). Christine then comes up with a range of ‘mini-adventures’, mostly set in Dublin, trying to fix it yet having no real experience in suicide-prevention support. Some activities and meddling work out better than others. The storytelling is heart-warming, funny, and light-hearted, yet at time serious and depressing as well (suicide is quite a large problem in Ireland, and higher than the world average). Several unexpected turns in the story and development of the characters and their motivations keep it interesting. It is a fairly quick read for its easy writing style, yet also one of those books that one would like to read again for the first time.

Woman on the edge of time by Marge Piercy (1976). I bought the book because it said “The Classic Feminist Science Fiction Novel” on the front cover. Frankly, that’s rubbish. If Americans think that’s feminism and sci-fi, then no wonder gender parity hasn’t been achieved and science is facing tough times there. Anyway, the story. The protagonist had dreams of education and independence and is sane but was put in the insane box and she goes along with it, with some weakness and whining about oppression here and there. What exactly is feminist about that?! The supposedly sci-fi part is the protagonist doing some mental trips to a future of “sexual, racial, and environmental harmony”. She can do that because here mind is “receptive”. Seriously? Really, there’s no smell of ‘sci’ there, just a lot of ‘fi’. If there were a single classic in the genre of ‘futurist fiction for feminists’, I’d say it’s most definitely kinderen van moeder aarde children of mother earth’ by Thea Beckman that I read back in the mid ‘80s. I still can remember the storyline now, more than 30 years later, without having read it since. The setting is in Greenland that, after some terrible nuclear war that has moved continents, was pushed south into a moderate climate whereas Europe ended up at a latitude where it’s a scorching hot climate. Thule (Greenland) is governed by women—because it was the men who screwed up with their wars—and now a dirty steamboat with exploitative patriarchal Europeans is arriving. The book describes how that society functions where women run the show (e.g., there are no prisons). The protagonists are two teenagers—one son of a female member of the governing body, the other his girlfriend from the commoners—who think that it isn’t fair that only women from the ruling hierarchy rule. In the end, they manage to neutralise the invaders and a few men get some say in governance.

The Power by Naomi Alderman (2016). As the saying goes, don’t judge a book by its cover. But the book’s front cover looked really cool and the back cover story sounded like an interesting scenario, so I ended up impulse-buying it anyway. It turned out to be a page-turner. The main part of the novel describes the unfolding events of an eclectic set of main characters across the world when, from one day to the next, women turn out to have ‘the power’. That is, there’s an organ that only women have that has suddenly become active with which, while it does not make girls and women physically stronger than men, they can hurt or kill men with or rape them through administering an electrical surge at a certain place. This obviously affects the status quo of the patriarchal societies across the world, and the girls and women respond differently on the new powers gained based on both their personal background and how bad it was for them in their subculture and country. The men respond differently to it as well. Without revealing too much, it could be categorised in the ‘futurist fiction for feminists’, sort of, as it’s also about ‘what if for millennia sexism was reversed?’ and ‘what if it were to be reversed now and it’s payback time?’. The answers that the author came up with make for useful reading, and perhaps also contemplation, for both women and men. Whether you think at the end it’s a dystopian novel, fanciful daydreaming, futurist fiction for feminists, a thriller, a useful mirror to the current society we live in, or stick another label to it—an opinion you’ll have of it :).

If these books don’t interest you, then perhaps one of the previous ones I posted about in 2012, 2013, 2014, 2015, 2016, and 2017 just might (I’m an omnivorous reader).

Logic, diagrams, or natural language for representing temporal constraints in conceptual modeling languages?

Spoiler alert of the answer: it depends. In this post, I’ll trace it back to how we got to that conclusion and refine it to what it depends on.

There are several conceptual modelling languages with extensions for temporal constraints that then will be used in a database to ensure data integrity with respect to the business rules. For instance, there may be a rule for some information system that states that “all managers in a company must have been employees of that company already” or “all postgraduate students must also be a teaching assistant for some time during their studies”. The question then becomes how to get the modellers to model this sort of information in the best way. The first step in that direction is figuring out the best way to represent temporal constraints. We already know that icons aren’t that unambiguous and easy [1], which leaves the natural language rendering devised recently [2], or one of the logic-based notations, such as the temporal Description Logic DLRUS [3]. So, the questions to investigate thus became, more precisely:

  • Which representation is preferred for representing temporal information: formal semantics, Description Logics (DL), a coding-style notation, diagrams, or template-based (pseudo-)natural language sentences?
  • What would be easier to understand by modellers: a succinct logic-based notation, a graphical notation, or a ‘coding style’ notation?

To answer these questions, my collaborator, Sonia Berman (also at UCT) and I conducted a survey to find out modeller preference(s) and understanding of these representation modes. The outcome of the experiment is about to be presented at the 36th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER’17) that will be held next week in Valencia, Spain, and is described in more detail in the paper “Determining the preferred representation of temporal constraints in conceptual models” [4].

The survey consisted mainly of questions asking them about which representation they preferred, a few questions on trying to model it, and basic questions, like whether they had English as first language (see the questionnaire for details). Below is one of the questions to illustrate it.

One of the questions of the survey

Its option (a) is the semantics notation of the DLRUS Description Logic, its option (b) the short-hand notation in DLRUS, option (c) a coding-style notation we made up, and option (e) is the natural language rendering that came out of prior work [2]. Option (d) was devised for this experiment: it shows the constraint in the Temporal information Representation in Entity-Relationship Diagrams (TREND) language. TREND is an updated and extended version of ERVT [5], taking into account earlier published extensions for temporal relationships, temporal attributes, and quantitative constraints (e.g., ‘employee receives a bonus after two years’), a new extension for the distinction between optional and mandatory temporal constraints, and the notation preferences emanating from [1].

Here are some of the main quantitative results:

The top-rated representation modes and `dislike’ ratings.

These are aggregates, though, and they hide some variations in responses. For instance, representing ‘simple’ temporal constraints in the DL notation was still ok (though noting that diagrams were most preferred), but the more complex the constraints got, the more the preference for the natural language rendering. For instance, take “Person married-to Person may be followed by Person divorced-from Person, ending Person married-to Person.” is deemed easier to understand than \langle o , o' \rangle \in marriedTo^{\mathcal{I}(t)} \rightarrow \exists t'>t. \langle o , o' \rangle \in divorcedFrom^{\mathcal{I}(t')} \land \langle o , o' \rangle \not\in marriedTo^{\mathcal{I}(t')} or \diamond^+\mbox{{\sc RDev}}_{{\sf marriedTo,divorcedFrom}}. Yet, the temporal relationship {\sf marriedTo \sqsubseteq \diamond^* \neg marriedTo} was deemed easier to understand than “The objects participating in a fact in Person married to Person do not relate through married-to at some time”. Details of the experiment and more data and analysis are described in the paper [4]. In sum, the evaluation showed the following:

  1. a clear preference for graphical or verbalised temporal constraints over the other three representations;
  2. ‘simple’ temporal constraints were preferred graphically and complex temporal constraints preferred in natural language; and
  3. their English specification of temporal constraints was inadequate.

Overall, this indicates that what is needed is some modeling tool that has a multi-modal interface for temporal conceptual model development, with the ability to switch between graphical and verbalised temporal constraints in particular.

If I hadn’t had teaching obligations (which now got cancelled due to student protests anyway) and no NRF funding cut in the incentive funding (rated researchers got to hear from one day to the next that it’ll be only 10% of what it used to be), I’d have presented the paper myself at ER’17. Instead, my co-author is on her way to all the fun. If you have any questions, suggestions, or comments, you can ask her at the conference, or drop me a line via email or in the comments below. If you’re interested in TREND: we’re working on a full paper with all the details and have conducted further modeling experiments with it, which we hope to finalise writing up by the end of the year (provided student protests won’t escalate and derail research plans any further).

 

References

[1] T. Shunmugam. Adoption of a visual model for temporal database representation. M. IT thesis, Department of Computer Science, University of Cape Town, South Africa, 2016.

[2] Keet, C.M. Natural language template selection for temporal constraints. CREOL: Contextual Representation of Events and Objects in Language, Joint Ontology Workshops 2017, 21-23 September 2017, Bolzano, Italy. CEUR-WS Vol. (in print).

[3] A. Artale, E. Franconi, F. Wolter, and M. Zakharyaschev. A temporal description logic for reasoning about conceptual schemas and queries. In S. Flesca, S. Greco, N. Leone, and G. Ianni, editors, Proceedings of the 8th Joint European Conference on Logics in Artificial Intelligence (JELIA-02), volume 2424 of LNAI, pages 98-110. Springer Verlag, 2002.

[4] Keet, C.M., Berman, S. Determining the preferred representation of temporal constraints in conceptual models. 36th International Conference on Conceptual Modeling (ER’17). Mayr, H.C., Guizzardi, G., Ma, H. Pastor. O. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 10650, 437-450. 6-9 Nov 2017, Valencia, Spain.

[5] A. Artale, C. Parent, and S. Spaccapietra. Evolving objects in temporal information systems. Annals of Mathematics and Artificial Intelligence, 50(1-2):5-38, 2007.

Round 2 of the search engine, browser, and language bias mini-experiment

Exactly a year ago I did a mini-experiment to see whether search engine bias exist in South Africa as well. It did. The notable case was that Google in English on Safari on the Mac (GES) showed results for ‘politically interesting searches’ that had less information and was leaning to the right-side of the political spectrum in a way that raised cause for concern, as compared to Google in isiZulu in Firefox (GiF) and Bing in English in Firefox (BEF). I repeated the experiment in the exact same way, with some of the same queries and a few more new ones that take into account current affairs; the only difference being using my Internet connection at home rather than at work. The same problem still exists, sometimes quite dramatically. As recommendation, then: don’t use Google in English on Safari on the Mac unless you want to be in an “anti-government Democratic Alliance as centre-of-the-world” bubble.

To back it all up, I took screenshots again, with the order fltr GiF, GES, BEF, so you can check for yourself what users with different configurations see on the first page of the search results. The set of clearly different/biased results are listed first.

  • EFF”, which in South Africa is a left populist opposition party, and internationally the abbreviation of the electronic frontier foundation:

    “EFF” search

    GiF lists it as political party; GES in relation to the DA first and then as political party; BEF as political party and electronic frontier foundation.

  • jacob zuma”, the current president of the country: GiF first has a google ad to oust zuma, then general info and news; GES with a google ad to oust zuma, comment by JZ’s son

    “jacob zuma” search

    blaming the whites (probably fuelling racial divisiveness), then general info and news; BEF has general info and news.

  • ANC”, currently the largest political party nationally and in power: GiF has first a link to ANC site, one

    “ANC” search

    news, and for the rest contact info; GES has first ‘bad press’ for the ANC as top stories, then twitter, then the ANC website; BEF lists first the ANC site, then news and info.

  • Manana”, who is the Higher Education deputy minister who faces allegations of mistreatment by female

    “Manana” search

    staff members in his department: GiF with news about the accusations; GES has negative news about the ANC women’s league and DA actions; BEF shows info about Manana and mixed it up with the Spanish mañana.

  • The autocomplete function when typing “ANC” was somewhat surprising: GiF also associates it with ‘eff news’, and ‘zuma’;

    exploring the autocomplete on “ANC”

    GES doesn’t have ‘eff news’ to suggest, so autocomplete also seems to be determined by the client-side configuration; BEF has all sorts of things.

  • white monopoly capital” (long story): GiF shows general info and news; GES also shows general info

    “white monopoly capital” search

    and news, but with that inciting blaming the whites news item; BEF shows general info and news as well, but differently ordered from Google’s result.

  • DA”, which in South Africa refers to the abbreviation of the Democratic Alliance opposition party

    “DA” search

    (capitalist, for the rich): GiF lists the DA website and some news; GES shows news on DA action and opinion, then the DA website; BEF lists the DA site, some general info and disambiguation.

  • motion of no confidence”, which was held last week against Jacob Zuma

    “motion of no confidence” search

    (the motion failed, but not by a large margin): GiF has again that Google ad for the organization to oust Zuma, then info and mostly news (with 1 international news site [Al Jazeera]); GES has info then SA opinion pieces rather than news; BEF has news and info.

  • FeesMustFall”, which was one of the tags of the student protests in 2015

    “FeesMustFall” search

    and 2016 (for free higher education): GiF has general info and news; GES shows first two ads to join the campaign, then general info and news; BEF has info and news. So, this seems flipped cf. last year.

Then the set of searches of which the results are roughly the same. I had expected this for “Law on cookies in South Africa” and “Socialism”, for they were about the same last year as well. I wasn’t sure about “women’s month” (this month, August), given its history; there are slight differences, but not much. The interesting one, perhaps, was that “state capture gupta” also showed similar results across the three configurations, all of them showing results to pages that treat it as fact and at least some detailed background reading on it.

“Law on cookies in South Africa” search

“Socialism” search

“women’s month” search

 

 

“state capture gupta” search

Finally, last year the mini-experiment was motivated by lecture preparations for the “Social Issues and Professional Practice” block of CSC1016S that I’m scheduled to teach in the upcoming semester (if there won’t be protests, that is). As compared to last year, now I can also add a note on the Algorithmic Transparency and Accountability statement from the ACM, in addition to the ‘filter bubble’ and ‘search engine manipulation’ items. Maybe I should cook up an exercise for the students so we can get data rather still being in the realm of anecdotes with my 20 searches and three configurations. If you did the same with a different configuration, please let me know.

Improved! TDDonto v2—more types of axioms supported and better feedback

Yes, the title almost sounds like a silly washing powder ad, but version 2 of TDDonto really does more than the TDDonto tool for Test-Driven Development of ontologies [1,2] that was introduced earlier this year. There are two principal novelties, largely thanks to Kieren Davies (also at UCT): more types of axioms are supported—arbitrary class expressions on both sides of the inclusion and ABox assertions—and differentiated test feedback beyond just pass/fail/unknown. TDDonto2 obviously still uses a test-first approach rather than test-last for ontology authoring, i.e., checking whether the axiom is already entailed in the ontology or would cause problems before actually adding it, saving yourself a lot of classification time overhead in the ontology authoring process. 

On the first item, TDDonto (or TawnyOwl or Scone) could not handle, e.g., Carnivore \sqcup Herbivore \sqsubseteq Animal or some domain restriction \forall eats.Animal \sqsubseteq Carnivore , or whether some individual is different/same from another. TDDonto2 can. This required a new set of algorithms, some nifty orchestration of several functions offered by an automated reasoned (of the DL/OWL variety), and extending the Protégé 5 functionality with parsing Manchester syntax keyword constructs for individuals as well (another 3600 lines of code). The Protégé 5 plugin works. Correctness of those algorithms has been proven, so you can rely on it just like you can with the test-last approach of add-axiom-and-then-run-the-reasoner (I’ll save you from those details).

On the second item (and also beyond the current TDD tools): now it can tell you not only just ‘pass’ (i.e., the axiom is entailed), but the ‘failed’ has been refined into the various possible cases: that adding the axiom to the ontology would cause the ontology to become inconsistent, or that it would cause a class to become unsatisfiable (incoherent), or it may be neither of the three (absent) so it would be ‘safe’ to add the axiom under test to the ontology (that is: at least not cause inconsistency, incoherence, or redundancy). Further, we’ve added ‘pre-real TDD unit test’ checks: if the ontology is already inconsistent, there’s no point in testing the axiom; if the ontology already has unsatisfiable classes, then one should fix that first; and if there is an entity in the test axiom that is not in the ontology, then it should be added first.

The remainder of the post mainly just shows off some of the functionality in text and with screenshots (UPDATE 13-3-2017: we now also have a screencast tutorial [177MB mov file]). Put the JAR file in the plugins directory, and then put it somewhere via Window – Views – Ontology views – TDDonto2. As toy ontology, I tend to end up with examples of the African Wildlife Ontology, which I use for exercises in my Ontology Engineering course, but as it is almost summer holiday here, I’ve conjured up a different example. That test ontology contains the following knowledge at the start:

ServiceObject \equiv Facility \sqcup Attraction

Pool \sqsubseteq Facility

Braai \sqsubseteq Facility

Pool \sqcap Braai \sqsubseteq \bot

Hotel \sqsubseteq Accommodation

BedAndBreakfast \sqsubseteq Accommodation

BedAndBreakfast \sqcap Hotel \sqsubseteq \bot

Facility \sqsubseteq \exists offeredBy.Accommodation

Hotel \sqsubseteq =1 offers.Pool

Hotel(LagoonBeach)

The first test is to see whether \exists offeredBy.Accommodation \sqsubseteq Facility , to show that TDDonto2 can handle class expressions on the left-hand side of the inclusion axiom. It can, and it is clearly absent from the toy ontology; see screenshot below, first line in the middle section. Likewise for the second and third test, where a typical novice ontology authoring mixup is made between ‘and’ and ‘or’, which different test results: one is absent, the other entailed.

poolbraaimissingThen some more fun: the pool braai. First of all, PoolBraai is not in our ontology, so TDDonto2 returns an error: it can be seen from Protégé’s handling (red dotted line below PoolBraai and red-lined text box in the screenshot above), and TDDonto2 will not let you add it to the set of tests (pop-up box, not shown). After adding it and testing “PoolBraai SubClassOf: Pool and Braai”, then if we were to add that axiom to the ontology, it will be incoherent (because Pool and Braai are disjoint):

poolbraaiwillbeincoherentDoing this nonetheless by selecting the axiom and adding it to our ontology by pressing the “Add selected to ontology”:

poolbraaiaddedand running all tests again by pressing the “Evaluate all” button (or select it and click “Evaluate selected”), the results look like this:

poolbraaifailedpreconditionThat is, we failed a precondition, because PoolBraai is unsatisfiable, so no tests are being executed until this is fixed. Did I make this up just to have a silly toy ontology example? No, the pool braai does exist, in South Africa at least: it is a stainless steel barbecue table-set that one can place in a small backyard pool. So, we remove PoolBraai \sqsubseteq Pool \sqcap Braai from the ontology and add PoolBraai \sqsubseteq Braai , so that we can do a few more tests.

Let’s assume we want to explore more about accommodations and their facilities, and add some knowledge about that (tests 5-7):

accosomefacilitiesFinally, let’s check something about any instances in the ontology. First, whether LagoonBeach is a hotel “LagoonBeach Type: Hotel”, which it is (with a view on Table Mountain), and whether it also could be a B&B, which it cannot be, because hotel and B&B are disjoint. Adding another individual to the ontology for the sake of example, SinCity (an owl:Thing), we want to know whether SinCity can be the same as LagoonBeach, or asserted as different (the last two test in the list): the tests return absent, i.e., they can be either, for nothing is known about SinCity.

instances

Now let’s remove a selection of the tests because they would cause problems in the ontology, and add the remaining five in one go:

5addedThis change requires one to classify the ontology, and subsequently you’re expected to run all the tests again to check that they are all entailed and do not cause some new problem, which they don’t:

testagain

And, finally, a few arbitrary ones that are ontologically a bit off, but they show that yes, something arbitrary both on the left-hand side and right-hand side of the inclusion (or equivalence) works (first test, below), disjointness still works (test 2) and now also with arbitrary class expressions (test 5), and the same/different individuals can take more than two arguments (tests 3 and 4).

extras

The source code and JAR file are freely available (GPL licence) to use, examine, or extend. A paper with the details has been submitted, so you’ll have to make do with just the tool for the moment. If you have any feedback on the tool, please let us know.

 

References

[1] Keet, C.M., Lawrynowicz, A. Test-Driven Development of Ontologies. 13th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’16). H. Sack et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9678, pp642-657. 29 May – 2 June, 2016, Crete, Greece.

[2] Lawrynowicz, A., Keet, C.M. The TDDonto Tool for Test-Driven Development of DL Knowledge bases. 29th International Workshop on Description Logics (DL’16). April 22-25, Cape Town, South Africa. CEUR WS vol. 1577.