Reblogging 2011: Essay on the Nonviolent Personality

From the “10 years of keetblog – reblogging: 2011”: of the general interest ones, this was most definitely the one that has taken up most time—not to write the post, but what it talks about: it reports on the Italian->English translation of a booklet “The nonviolent personality”, which took over 2 years to complete. Giuliano Pontara, whom I had the pleasure to finally meet in person in Stockholm last October, wrote the original in Italian. 

Essay on the Nonviolent Personality; March 3

———-

La personalità nonviolenta—the nonviolent personality—is the title of a booklet I stumbled upon in a bookshop in Trento in spring 2004 whilst being in the city for my internship at the Laboratory for Applied Ontology. The title immediately raises the question: what, then, actually does constitute a nonviolent personality? The author of the booklet, Giuliano Pontara, since recently an emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Stockholm, aims to contribute to answer this question that certainly does not have simple answer.

The booklet itself is out of print (having been published in 1996) and, moreover, written in Italian, which most people in the world cannot understand. However, in my opinion at least, Pontara’s proposed answer certainly deserves a wider audience, contemplation, and further investigation. So I set out to translate it into English and put it online for free. That took a while to accomplish, and the last year was certainly the most interesting one with multiple email exchanges with Giuliano Pontara about the finer details of the semantics of the words and sentences in both the Italian original and the English translation. Now here it is: The Nonviolent Personality [pdf, 1.7MB] (low bandwidth version [pdf, 287KB]).

So what is it about? Here is the new back flap summary of the booklet:

At the beginning of the new century, the culture of peace finds itself facing many and difficult challenges. This booklet surveys some of these challenges and the characteristics that a mature culture of peace should have in order to respond to them. Particularly, it investigates what type of person is more apt to be a carrier of such a mature culture of peace: the nonviolent personality. Finally, it addresses the question regarding the factors that in the educative process tend to impede and favour, respectively, the development of moral subjects equipped with a nonviolent personality.

The original Italian version was written by Giuliano Pontara, emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Stockholm, and published in 1996, but its message is certainly not outdated and perhaps even more important in the current climate. Why this is so, and why it is useful to have a more widely accessible version of the booklet available, is motivated in the introduction by Maria Keet, Senior Lecturer at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

A slightly longer description

The first chapter of the book, having been written in the mid-nineties, discusses the then-current political situation in the world. Pontara describes the post-Cold War situation, touches upon separatism, nationalism, fundamentalism, exploitation and totalitarian capitalism (among other challenges). This includes the “cow-boy ethics” and the return of the Nazi mentality, the latter not being about Arian supremacy, but the glorification of force (and violence in general) and contempt for ‘the weak’, the might-is-right adagio, and that cow-boy ethics has been elevated to prime principle of conducting international politics. You can analyse and decide yourself if the shoe fits for a particular country’s culture and politics, be it then or now. After this rather gloomy first chapter, the first step toward a positive outlook is described in Chapter 2, which looks at several basic features of a mature culture of peace.

The core of the booklet is Chapter 3, which commences with listing ten characteristics of a nonviolent personality:

  • Rejection of violence
  • The capability to identify violence
  • The capability to have empathy
  • Refusal of authority
  • Trust in others
  • The disposition to communicate
  • Mildness
  • Courage
  • Self-sacrifice
  • Patience

These characteristics are discussed in detail in the remainder of the chapter. Read it if you want to know what is meant with these characteristics, and why.

Chapter 4 considers education at school, at home, and through other influences (such as the TV), describing both the problems in the present systems and what can to be done to change it. For example, educating students to develop a critical moral conscience, analyse, and to be able to think for oneself (as opposed to rote-learning in a degree-factory), not taking a dualistic approach but facilitating creative constructive solutions instead, and creating an atmosphere that prevents the numbing of conscience, the weakness of the senses, consumerism, and conformism of the mass-media. Also some suggestions for class activities are suggested, but note that education does not end there: it is a continuous process in life.

The English writing style may not be perfect (the spelling and grammar checkers do not complain though); either way, it tries to strike a balance between the writing style of the original and readability of the English text. And no, the translation was not done with Google translate or a similar feature, but manually and there are some notes on the translation at the end of the new booklet. Other changes or additions compared to the Italian original are the new foreword by Pontara and introduction by me, an index, bibliography in alphabetical order and several Italian translations in the original have been substituted with the original English reference, and there are biographical sketches. I did the editing and typesetting in Latex, so it looks nice and presentable.

Last, but not least:
Creative Commons License
The Nonviolent Personality by Maria Keet is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.

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Logical and ontological reasoning services?

The SubProS and ProChainS compatibility services for OWL ontologies to check for good and ‘safe’ OWL object property expression [5] may be considered ontological reasoning services by some, but according others, they are/ought to be plain logical reasoning services. I discussed this issue with Alessandro Artale back in 2007 when we came up with the RBox Compatibility service [1]—which, in the end, we called an ontological reasoning service—and it came up again during EKAW’12 and the Ontologies and Conceptual Modelling Workshop (OCM) in Pretoria in November. Moreover, in all three settings, the conversation was generalized to the following questions:

  1. Is there a difference between a logical and an ontological reasoning service (be that ‘onto’-logical or ‘extra’-logical)? If so,
    1. Why, and what, then, is an ontological reasoning service?
    2. Are there any that can serve at least as prototypical example of an ontological reasoning service?

There’s still no conclusive answer on either of the questions. So, I present here some data and arguments I had and that I’ve heard so far, and I invite you to have your say on the matter. I will first introduce a few notions, terms, tools, and implicit assumptions informally, then list the three positions and their arguments I am aware of.

Some aspects about standard, non-standard, and ontological reasoning services

Let me first introduce a few ideas informally. Within Description Logics and the Semantic Web, a distinction is made between so-called ‘standard’ and ‘non-standard’ reasoning services. The standard reasoning services—which most of the DL-based reasoners support—are subsumption reasoning, satisfiability, consistency of the knowledge base, instance checking, and instance retrieval (see, e.g., [2,3] for explanations). Non-standard reasoning services include, e.g., glass-box reasoning and computing the least common subsumer, they are typically designed with the aim to facilitate ontology development, and tend to have their own plugin or extension to an existing reasoner. What these standard and non-standard reasoners have in common, is that they all focus on the (subset of first order predicate logic) logical theory only.

Take, on the other hand, OntoClean [4], which assigns meta-properties (such as rigidity and unity) to classes, and then, according to some rules involving those meta-properties, computes the class taxonomy. Those meta-properties are borrowed from Ontology in philosophy and the rules do not use the standard way of computing subsumption (where every instance of the subclass is also an instance of its super class and, thus, practically, the subclass has more or features or has the same features but with more constrained values/ranges). Moreover, OntoClean helps to distinguish between alternative logical formalisations of some piece of knowledge so as to choose the one that is better with respect to the reality we want to represent; e.g., why it is better to have the class Apple that has as quality a color green, versus the option of a class GreenObject that has shape apple-shaped. This being the case, OntoClean may be considered an ontological reasoning service. My SubProS and ProChainS [5] put constraints on OWL object property expressions so as to have safe and good hierarchies of object properties and property chains, based on the same notion of class subsumption, but then applied to role inclusion axioms: the OWL object sub-property (relationship, DL role) must be more constrained than its super-property and the two reasoning services check if that holds. But some of the flawed object property expressions do not cause a logical inconsistency (merely an undesirable deduction), so one might argue that the compatibility services are ontological.

The arguments so far

The descriptions in the previous paragraph contain implicit assumptions about the logical vs ontological reasoning, which I will spell out here. They are a synthesis from mine as well as other people’s voiced opinions about it (the other people being, among others and in alphabetical order, Alessandro Artale, Arina Britz, Giovanni Casini, Enrico Franconi, Aldo Gangemi, Chiara Ghidini, Tommie Meyer, Valentina Presutti, and Michael Uschold). It goes without saying they are my renderings of the arguments, and sometimes I state the things a little more bluntly to make the point.

1. If it is not entailed by the (standard, DL/other logic) reasoning service, then it is something ontological.

Logic is not about the study of the truth, but about the relationship of the truth of one statement and that of another. Effectively, it doesn’t matter what terms you have in the theory’s vocabulary—be this simply A, B, C, etc. or an attempt to represent Apple, Banana, Citrus, etc. conformant to what those entities are in reality—as it uses truth assignments and the usual rules of inference. If you want some reasoning that helps making a distinction between a good and a bad formalisation of what you aim to represent (where both theories are consistent), then that’s not the logician’s business but instead is relegated to the domain of whatever it is that ontologists get excited about. A counter-argument raised to that was that the early logicians were, in fact, concerned with finding a way to formalize reality in the best way; hence, not only syntax and semantics of the logic language, but also the semantics/meaning of the subject domain. A practical counter-example is that both Glimm et al [6] and Welty [7] managed to ‘hack’ OntoClean into OWL and use standard DL reasoners for it to obtain de desired inferences, so, presumably, then even OntoClean cannot be considered an ontological reasoning service after all?

2. Something ‘meta’ like OntoClean can/might be considered really ontological, but SubProS and ProChainS are ‘extra-logical’ and can be embedded like the extra-logical understanding of class subsumption, so they are logical reasoning services (for it is the analogue to class subsumption but then for role inclusion axioms).

This argument has to do with the notion of ‘standard way’ versus ‘alternative approach’ to compute something and the idea of having borrowed something from Ontology recently versus from mathematics and Aristotle somewhat longer ago. (note: the notion of subsumption in computing was still discussed in the 1980s, where the debate got settled in what is now considered the established understanding of class subsumption.) We simply can apply the underlying principles for class-subclass to one for relationships (/object properties/roles). DL/OWL reasoners and the standard view assume that the role box/object property expressions are correct and merely used to compute the class taxonomy only. But why should I assume the role box is fine, even when I know this is not always the case? And why do I have to put up with a classification of some class elsewhere in the taxonomy (or be inconsistent) when the real mistake is in the role box, not the class expression? Differently, some distinction seems to have been drawn between ‘meta’ (second order?), ‘extra’ to indicate the assumptions built into the algorithms/procedures, and ‘other, regular’ like satisfiability checking that we have for all logical theories. Another argument raised was that the ‘meta’ stuff has to do with second order logics, for which there are no good (read: sound and complete) reasoners.

3. Essentially, everything is logical, and services like OntoClean, SubProS, ProChainS can be represented formally with some clearly, precisely, formally, defined inferencing rules, so then there is no ontological reasoning, but there are only logical reasoning services.

This argument made me think of the “logic is everywhere” mug I still have (a goodie from the ICCL 2005 summer school in Dresden). More seriously, though, this argument raises some old philosophical debates whether everything can indeed be formalized, and provided any logic is fine and computation doesn’t matter. Further, it conflates the distinction, if any, between plain logical entailment, the notion of undesirable deductions (e.g., that a CarChassis is-a Perdurant [some kind of a process]), and the modeling choices and preferences (recall the apple with a colour vs. green object that has an apple-shape). But maybe that conflation is fine and there is no real distinction (if so: why?).

In my paper [5] and in the two presentations of it, I had stressed that SubProS and ProChainS were ontological reasoning services, because before that, I had tried but failed to convince logicians of the Type-I position that there’s something useful to those compatibility services and that they ought to be computed (currently, they are mostly not computed by the standard reasoners). Type-II adherents were plentiful at EKAW’12 and some at the OCM workshop. I encountered the most vocal Type-III adherent (mathematician) at the OCM workshop. Then there were the indecisive ones and people who switched and/or became indecisive. At the moment of writing this, I still lean toward Type-II, but I’m open to better arguments.

References

[1] Keet, C.M., Artale, A.: Representing and reasoning over a taxonomy of part-whole relations. Applied Ontology, 2008, 3(1-2), 91–110.

[2] F. Baader, D. Calvanese, D. L. McGuinness, D. Nardi, and P. F. Patel-Schneider (Eds). The Description Logics Handbook. Cambridge University Press, 2009.

[3] Pascal Hitzler, Markus Kroetzsch, Sebastian Rudolph. Foundations of Semantic Web Technologies. Chapman & Hall/CRC, 2009,

[4] Guarino, N. and Welty, C. An Overview of OntoClean. In S. Staab, R. Studer (eds.), Handbook on Ontologies, Springer Verlag 2009, pp. 201-220.

[5] Keet, C.M. Detecting and Revising Flaws in OWL Object Property Expressions. Proc. of EKAW’12. Springer LNAI vol 7603, pp2 52-266.

[6] Birte Glimm, Sebastian Rudolph, and Johanna Volker. Integrated metamodeling and diagnosis in OWL 2. In Peter F. Patel-Schneider, Yue Pan, Pascal Hitzler, Peter Mika, Lei Zhang, Jeff Z. Pan, Ian Horrocks, and Birte Glimm, editors, Proceedings of the 9th International Semantic Web Conference, volume 6496 of LNCS, pages 257-272. Springer, November 2010.

[7] Chris Welty. OntOWLclean: cleaning OWL ontologies with OWL. In B. Bennet and C. Fellbaum, editors, Proceedings of Formal Ontologies in Information Systems (FOIS’06), pages 347-359. IOS Press, 2006.

My snapshots for why I do what I do

A type of conversation that occurs not infrequently goes alike:

  • Other person: “why are you here?”
  • Me: Uh?
  • Other person: “I mean, work at the university. You can earn so much more money when working in industry.”
  • Me: Ahh. Well, I have worked in industry for 3.5 years. It was fine for a while, but not enough…

Then I fill in the dots to a greater or lesser extent, depending on the occasion. Related to answering such questions is Anthony Finkelstein’s “why I do what I do” blogpost: it consists of snapshots of positive aspects and events that made him feel it makes it all worthwhile being a professor in software engineering, which is a nice idea to give small hints toward answering it. Here I compiled some of my ‘snapshots’ of positive aspects, pleasant events, and encouraging feedback that have occurred that make me enjoy my job more than to give into a latent thirst for money and possessions and go back to industry (but note that I reserve the right to change my mind again). In random order:

The excitement when you’re the first person in the whole world who solves some particular problem or discovers something hitherto unknown.

After having covered topics like relational algebra, SQL, and distributed databases in the lectures, a student comments, baffled, “I thought databases was just about playing a bit with MS Access, but there’s so much more to it. It’s really amazing!”

I got to see the Sydney Opera House—wanting to see it since I saw a slide of it in my last year of high school during art classes—right before presenting my paper at a top-ranked conference, and the university paid for the trip to the other end of the world.

“We are pleased to inform you that you paper “xxx” has been accepted for …”

I stumbled upon a paper related to my PhD thesis, stating they use my theory to solve the problem they had.

A fourth-year student emailed me at the end of the course that he’s impressed that I’m a caring lecturer also going beyond what I have to do, and that he has yet to meet someone like me.

Socializing with colleagues from different disciplines, and brainstorming about joining forces to research and devise solutions to fix the major problems in the world.

I traveled to Cuba to, upon invitation, teach a course in my research area to well-prepared and motivated students who were eager to learn. And an extension one of the course’s projects even resulted in a joint paper.

A paper cites one of my papers as if it is the default/standard paper to cite on that topic.

Free access to most of the primary sources of scientific information regardless the discipline.

I can investigate issues that I fancy looking into, and even can earn a living with it.

Seeing students surpassing their own expectations and becoming aware of the capabilities they didn’t think themselves they had but actually do have.

Meeting up with colleagues and having stimulating conversations about pressing problems and known unknowns in our oh-so-relevant sub-sub-sub-field of our discipline, alternated with pub talk on the ‘tales from the trenches’ and nerdy trivia.

I know what the box is made of, what it does, and can make it compute what it should compute.

I travel to different countries and meet many people from all over the world, reconfirming time and again we are all very human, and live in and share this world together.

Ontologies and conceptual modelling workshop in Pretoria

A first attempt was made in South Africa to get researchers and students together who are interested in, and work on, ontologies, conceptual data modelling, and the interaction between the two, shaped in the form of an interactive Workshop on Ontologies and Conceptual Modelling on 15-16 Nov 2012 in Tshwane/Pretoria (part of the Forum on AI Research (FAIR’12) activities). The participants came from, the University of KwaZulu-Natal, University of South Africa, Fondazione Bruno Kessler, and different research units of CSIR-Meraka (where the workshop was organized and held), and the remainder of the post contains a brief summary of the ongoing and recently competed research that was presented at the workshop.

The focus on the first day of the workshop was principally on the modeling itself, modeling features, and some prospects for reasoning with that represented information and knowledge. I had the honour to start the sessions with the talk of the paper that recently won the best paper award at EKAW’12 on “Detecting and Revising Flaws in OWL Object Property Expressions” [1], which was followed by Zubeida Khan’s talk of our paper at EKAW’12 about ONSET: Automated Foundational Ontology Selection and Explanation [2] that was extended with a brief overview of her MSc thesis on an open ontology repository for foundational ontologies that is near completion. Tahir Khan, who is a visiting PhD student (at UKZN) from Fondazione Bruno Kessler in Trento, gave the third talk within the scope of ontology engineering research. The main part of Tahir’s presentation consisted of an overview of his template-based approach for ontology construction that aims to involve the domain experts in the modeling process of domain ontology development in a more effective way [3]. This was rounded off with a brief overview of one component of this approach, which has to do with being able to select the right DOLCE category when one adds a new class to the ontology and integrating OntoPartS for selecting the appropriate part-whole relation [4] into the template-based approach and its implementation in the MoKi ontology development environment.

There were three talks about representation of and reasoning over defeasible knowledge. Informally, defeasible information representation concerns the ability to represent (and, later, reason over) ‘typical’ or ‘usual’ cases that do have exceptions; e.g., that a human heart is typically positioned left, but in people with sinus inversus, it is positioned on the right-hand side in the chest, and policy rules, such as that, normally, users have access to, say, documents of type x, but black-listed users should be denied access. Giovanni Casini presented recent results on extending the ORM2 conceptual data modeling language with the ability to represent such defeasible information [5], which will be presented also at the Australasian Ontology Workshop in early December. Tommie Meyer focused on the reasoning about it in a Description Logics context ([6] is somewhat related to the talk), whereas Ivan Varzinczak looked at the propositional case with defeasible modalities [7], which will be presented at the TARK’13 conference.

Arina Britz and I also presented fresh-fresh in-submission stage results. Arina gave a presentation about semantic similarities and ‘forgetting’ in propositional logical theories (joint work with Ivan Varzinczak), and I presented a unifying metamodel for UML class diagrams v2.4.1, EER, and ORM2 (joint work with Pablo Fillottrani).

Deshen Moodley gave an overview of the HeAL lab at UKZN and outlined some results from his students Ryan Chrichton (MSc) and Ntsako Maphophe (BSc(honours)). Ryan designed an architecture for software interoperability of health information systems in low-resource settings [8]. Ntsako has developed a web-based ontology development and browsing tool for lightweight ontologies stored in a relational database that was tailored to the use case of a lightweight ontology of software artifacts. Ken Halland presented and discussed his experiences with teaching a distance-learning-based honours-level ontology engineering module at UNISA.

Overall, it was a stimulating and interactive workshop that hopefully can, and will, be repeated next year with an even broader participation than this year’s 16 participants.

References

[1] C. Maria Keet. Detecting and Revising Flaws in OWL Object Property Expressions. Proc. of EKAW’12. Springer LNAI vol 7603, pp2 52-266.

[2] Zubeida Khan and C. Maria Keet. ONSET: Automated Foundational Ontology Selection and Explanation. Proc. of EKAW’12. Springer LNAI vol 7603, pp 237-251.

[3] Tahir Khan. Involving domain experts in ontology construction: a template-based approach. Proc. of ESWC’12 PhD Symposium. 28 May 2012, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Springer, LNCS 7295, 864-869.

[4] C. Maria Keet, Francis Fernandez-Reyes, and Annette Morales-Gonzalez. Representing mereotopological relations in OWL ontologies with OntoPartS. In: Proc. of ESWC’12, 29-31 May 2012, Heraklion, Crete, Greece. Springer, LNCS 7295, 240-254.

[5] Giovanni Casini and Alessandro Mosca. Defeasible reasoning for ORM. In: Proc. of AOW’12. Dec 4, Sydney, Australia

[6] Moodley, K., Meyer, T., Varzinczak, I. A Defeasible Reasoning Approach for Description Logic Ontologies. Proc. of SAICSIT’12. Pretoria.

[7] Arina Britz and Ivan Varzinczak. Defeasible modalities. Proc. of TARK’13, Chennai, India.

[8] Ryan Crichton, Deshendran Moodley, Anban Pillay, Richard Gakuba and Christopher J Seebregts. An Interoperability Architecture for the Health Information Exchange in Rwanda. In Foundations of Health Information Engineering and Systems. 2012.

Essay on the Nonviolent Personality

La personalità nonviolenta—the nonviolent personality—is the title of a booklet I stumbled upon in a bookshop in Trento in spring 2004 whilst being in the city for my internship at the Laboratory for Applied Ontology. The title immediately raises the question: what, then, actually does constitute a nonviolent personality? The author of the booklet, Giuliano Pontara, since recently an emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Stockholm, aims to contribute to answer this question that certainly does not have simple answer.

The booklet itself is out of print (having been published in 1996) and, moreover, written in Italian, which most people in the world cannot understand. However, in my opinion at least, Pontara’s proposed answer certainly deserves a wider audience, contemplation, and further investigation. So I set out to translate it into English and put it online for free. That took a while to accomplish, and the last year was certainly the most interesting one with multiple email exchanges with Giuliano Pontara about the finer details of the semantics of the words and sentences in both the Italian original and the English translation. Now here it is: The Nonviolent Personality [pdf, 1.7MB] (low bandwidth version [pdf, 287KB]).

So what is it about? Here is the new back flap summary of the booklet:

At the beginning of the new century, the culture of peace finds itself facing many and difficult challenges. This booklet surveys some of these challenges and the characteristics that a mature culture of peace should have in order to respond to them. Particularly, it investigates what type of person is more apt to be a carrier of such a mature culture of peace: the nonviolent personality. Finally, it addresses the question regarding the factors that in the educative process tend to impede and favour, respectively, the development of moral subjects equipped with a nonviolent personality.

The original Italian version was written by Giuliano Pontara, emeritus of Philosophy at the University of Stockholm, and published in 1996, but its message is certainly not outdated and perhaps even more important in the current climate. Why this is so, and why it is useful to have a more widely accessible version of the booklet available, is motivated in the introduction by Maria Keet, Senior Lecturer at the University of KwaZulu-Natal.

A slightly longer description

The first chapter of the book, having been written in the mid-nineties, discusses the then-current political situation in the world. Pontara describes the post-Cold War situation, touches upon separatism, nationalism, fundamentalism, exploitation and totalitarian capitalism (among other challenges). This includes the “cow-boy ethics” and the return of the Nazi mentality, the latter not being about Arian supremacy, but the glorification of force (and violence in general) and contempt for ‘the weak’, the might-is-right adagio, and that cow-boy ethics has been elevated to prime principle of conducting international politics. You can analyse and decide yourself if the shoe fits for a particular country’s culture and politics, be it then or now. After this rather gloomy first chapter, the first step toward a positive outlook is described in Chapter 2, which looks at several basic features of a mature culture of peace.

The core of the booklet is Chapter 3, which commences with listing ten characteristics of a nonviolent personality:

  • Rejection of violence
  • The capability to identify violence
  • The capability to have empathy
  • Refusal of authority
  • Trust in others
  • The disposition to communicate
  • Mildness
  • Courage
  • Self-sacrifice
  • Patience

These characteristics are discussed in detail in the remainder of the chapter. Read it if you want to know what is meant with these characteristics, and why.

Chapter 4 considers education at school, at home, and through other influences (such as the TV), describing both the problems in the present systems and what can to be done to change it. For example, educating students to develop a critical moral conscience, analyse, and to be able to think for oneself (as opposed to rote-learning in a degree-factory), not taking a dualistic approach but facilitating creative constructive solutions instead, and creating an atmosphere that prevents the numbing of conscience, the weakness of the senses, consumerism, and conformism of the mass-media. Also some suggestions for class activities are suggested, but note that education does not end there: it is a continuous process in life.

The English writing style may not be perfect (the spelling and grammar checkers do not complain though); either way, it tries to strike a balance between the writing style of the original and readability of the English text. And no, the translation was not done with Google translate or a similar feature, but manually and there are some notes on the translation at the end of the new booklet. Other changes or additions compared to the Italian original are the new foreword by Pontara and introduction by me, an index, bibliography in alphabetical order and several Italian translations in the original have been substituted with the original English reference, and there are biographical sketches. I did the editing and typesetting in Latex, so it looks nice and presentable.

Last, but not least:
Creative Commons License
The Nonviolent Personality by Maria Keet is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike 3.0 Unported License.