Reflections on ESWC 2016: where are the ontologies papers?

Although I did make notes of the presentations I attended at the 13th Extended Semantic Web Conference a fortnight ago, with the best intentions to write a conference report, it’s going to be an opinion piece of some sort, on ontology engineering, or, more precisely: the lack thereof at ESWC2016.

That there isn’t much on ontology research at ISWC over the past several years, I already knew, both from looking at the accepted papers and the grapevine, but ESWC was still known to be welcoming to ontology engineering. ESWC 2016, however, had only one “vocabularies, schemas, and ontologies” [yes, in that order] session (and one on reasoning), with only the paper by Agnieszka and me solidly in the ‘ontologies’/ontology engineering bracket, with new theory, a tool implementing it, experiments, and a methodology sketch [1]. The other two papers were more on using ontologies, in annotating documents and in question answering. My initial thought was: “ah, hm, bummer, so ESWC also shifted focus”. There also were few ontologists at the conference, so I wondered whether the others moved on to a non-LD related field, alike I did shift focus a bit thanks/due to funded projects in adjacent fields (I did try to get funds for ontology engineering projects, though).

To my surprise, however, it appeared that a whopping 27 papers had been submitted to the “vocabularies, schemas, and ontologies” track. It was just that only three had made it through the review process. Asking around a bit, the comments were sort of like when I was co-chair of the track for ESWC 2014: ‘meh’, not research (e.g., just developing a domain ontology), minor delta, need/relevance unclear. And looking again at my reviews for 2015 and 2016, in addition to those reasons: failing to consider relevant related work, or a lacking a comparison with related work (needed to demonstrate improvement), and/or some issues with the theory (formal stuff). So, are we to blame and ‘suicidal’ or become complacent and lazy? It’s not like the main problems have been solved and developing an ontology has become a piece of cake now, compared to, say, 10 years ago. And while it is somewhat tempting to do some paper/presentation bashing, I won’t go into specifics, other than that at two presentations I attended, where they did show a section of an ontology, there was even the novice error of confusing classes with instances.

Anyway, there used to be more ontology papers in earlier ESWCs. To check that subjective impression, I did a quick-and-dirty check of the previous 12 editions as well, of which 11 had named sessions. Here’s the overview of the number of ontology papers over the years (minus the first one as it did not have named sections):


The aggregates are a bit ‘dirty’ as the 2010 increase grouped ontologies together with reasoning (if done for 2016, we’d have made it to 6), as was 2007 a bit flexible on that, and 2015 had 3 ontologies papers + 3 ontology matching & summarization, so stretching it a bit in that direction, as was the case in 2013. The number of papers in 2006 is indeed that much, with sessions on ontology engineering (3 papers), ontology evaluation (3), ontology alignment (5), ontology evolution (3), and ontology learning (3). So, there is indeed a somewhat downward trend.

Admitted, ‘ontologies’ is over the initial hype and it probably now requires more preparation and work to come up with something sufficiently new than it was 10 years ago. Looking at the proceedings of 5 years ago rather, the 7 ontologies papers were definitely not trivial, and I still remember the one on removing redundancies [2], the introduction of two new matching evaluation measures and comparison with other methods [3], and automatically detecting related ontology versions [4]. Five ontology papers then had new theory and some experiments, and two had extensive experiments [5,6]. 2012 had 6 ontologies papers, some interesting, but something like the ‘SKOS survey’ is a dated thing (nice, but ESWC-level?) and ISOcat isn’t great (but I’m biased here, as I don’t like it that noun classes aren’t in there, and it is hard to access).

Now what? Work more/harder on ontology engineering if you don’t want to have it vanish from ESWC. That’s easier said than done, though. But I suppose it’s fair to say to not discard the ESWC venue as being ‘not an ontology venue anymore’, and instead use these six months to the deadline to work hard enough. Yet, who knows, maybe we are harder to ourselves when reviewing papers compared to other tracks. Either way, it is something to reflect upon, as an 11% acceptance rate for a track, like this year, isn’t great. ESWC16 in general had good papers and interesting discussions. While the parties don’t seem to be as big as they used to be, there sure is a good time to be had as well.


p.s.: Cretan village, where I stayed for the first time, was good and had a nice short walk on the beach to the conference hotel, but beware that the mosquitos absent from Knossos Hotel all flock to that place.



[1] Keet, C.M., Lawrynowicz, A. Test-Driven Development of Ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 13th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’16). Springer LNCS 9678, 642-657. 29 May – 2 June, 2016, Crete, Greece.

[2] Stephan Grimm and Jens Wissmann. Elimination of redundancy in ontologies. In: Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’11). Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29 May – 2 June 2011. Springer LNCS 6643, 260-274.

[3] Xing Niu, Haofen Wang, GangWu, Guilin Qi, and Yong Yu. Evaluating the Stability and Credibility of Ontology Matching Methods. In: Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’11). Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29 May – 2 June 2011. Springer LNCS 6643, 275-289.

[4] Carlo Alocca. Automatic Identification of Ontology Versions Using Machine Learning Techniques. In: Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’11). Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29 May – 2 June 2011. Springer LNCS 6643, 275-289.

[5] Keet, C.M. The use of foundational ontologies in ontology development: an empirical assessment. In: Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’11). Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29 May – 2 June 2011. Springer LNCS 6643, 321-335.

[6] Wei Hu, Jianfeng Chen, Hang Zhang, and Yuzhong Qu. How Matchable Are Four Thousand Ontologies on the Semantic Web. In: Proceedings of the 8th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’11). Heraklion, Crete, Greece, 29 May – 2 June 2011. Springer LNCS 6643, 290-304.

CFP Logics and Reasoning for Conceptual Models (LRCM 2016)

Just in case you don’t have enough to do these days, or want to ‘increase exposure’ when attending KR2016/DL2016/NMR2016 in Cape Town in April, or try to use it as another way in to attend KR2016/DL2016/NMR2016, or [fill in another reason]: please consider submitting a paper or an abstract to the Second Workshop on Logics and Reasoning for Conceptual Models (LRCM 2016):

Second Workshop on Logics and Reasoning for Conceptual Models (LRCM 2016)
April 21, 2016, Cape Town, South Africa
Co-located with:
15th Int. Conference on Knowledge Representation and Reasoning (KR 2016)
29th Int. Workshop on Description Logics (DL 2016)

There is an increase in complexity of information systems due to,
among others, company mergers with information system integration,
upscaling of scientific collaborations, e-government etc., which push
the necessity for good quality information systems. An information
system’s quality is largely determined in the conceptual modelling
stage, and avoiding or fixing errors of the conceptual model saves
resources during design, implementation, and maintenance. The size and
high expressivity of conceptual models represented in languages such
as EER, UML, and ORM require a logic-based approach in the
representation of information and adoption of automated reasoning
techniques to assist in the development of good quality conceptual
models. The theory to achieve this is still in its infancy, however,
with only a limited set of theories and tools that address subtopics
in this area. This workshop aims at bringing together researchers
working on the logic foundations of conceptual data modelling
languages and the reasoning techniques that are being developed so as
to discuss the latest results in the area.

**** Topics ****
Topics of interest include, but are not limited to:
- Logics for temporal and spatial conceptual models and BPM
- Deontic logics for SBVR
- Other logic-based extensions to standard conceptual modelling languages
- Unifying formalisms for conceptual schemas
- Decidable reasoning over conceptual models
- Dealing with finite and infinite satisfiability of a conceptual model
- Reasoning over UML state and behaviour diagrams
- Reasoning techniques for EER/UML/ORM
- Interaction between ontology languages and conceptual data modelling languages
- Tools for logic-based modelling and reasoning over conceptual models
- Experience reports on logic-based modelling and reasoning over conceptual models
- Logics and reasoning over models for Big Data

To this end, we solicit mainly theoretical contributions with regular
talks and implementation/system demonstrations and some modelling
experience reports to facilitate cross-fertilisation between theory
and praxis.  Selection of presentations is based on peer-review of
submitted papers by at least 2 reviewers, with a separation between
theory and implementation & experience-type of papers.

**** Submissions ****
We welcome submissions in LNCS style in the following two formats for
oral presentation:
- Extended abstracts of maximum 2 pages;
- Research papers of maximum 10 pages.
Both can be submitted in pdf format via the EasyChair website at

**** Important dates ****
Submission of papers/abstracts:  February 7, 2016
Notification of acceptance:      March 15, 2016
Camera-ready copies:             March 21, 2016
Workshop:                        April 21, 2016

**** Organisers ****
Diego Calvanese (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
Alfredo Cuzzocrea (University of Trieste and ICAR-CNR, Italy)
Maria Keet (University of Cape Town, South Africa)

**** PC Members ****
Alessandro Artale (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
Arina Britz (Stellenbosch University, South Africa)
Thomas Meyer (University of Cape Town, South Africa)
Marco Montali (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
Alessandro Mosca (SIRIS Academic, Spain)
Till Mossakowski (University of Magdeburg)
Anna Queralt (Barcelona Supercomputing Center, Spain)
Vladislav Ryzhikov (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
Pablo Fillottrani (Universidad Nacional del Sur, Argentina)
Szymon Klarman (Brunel University London, UK)
Roman Kontchakov (Birkbeck, University of London, UK)
Oliver Kutz (Free University of Bozen-Bolzano, Italy)
Ernest Teniente (Universitat Politecnica de Catalunya, Spain)
David Toman (University of Waterloo, Canada)
(Further invitations pending)

Depending on the number of submissions, the duration of the workshop
will be either half a day or a full day.

Fruitful ADBIS’15 in Poitiers

The 19th Conference on Advances in Databases and Information Systems (ADBIS’15) just finished yesterday. It was an enjoyable and well-organised conference in the lovely town of Poitiers, France. Thanks to the general chair, Ladjel Bellatreche, and the participants I had the pleasure to meet up with, listen to, and receive feedback from. The remainder of this post mainly recaps the keynotes and some of the presentations.



The conference featured two keynotes, one by Serge Abiteboul and on by Jens Dittrich, both distinguished scientists in databases. Abiteboul presented the multi-year project on Webdamlog that ended up as a ‘personal information management system’, which is a simple term that hides the complexity that happens behind the scenes. (PIMS is informally explained here). It breaks with the paradigm of centralised text (e.g., Facebook) to distributed knowledge. To achieve that, one has to analyse what’s happening and construct the knowledge from that, exchange knowledge, and reason and infer knowledge. This requires distributed reasoning, exchanging facts and rules, and taking care of access control. It is being realised with a datalog-style language but that then also can handle a non-local knowledge base. That is, there’s both solid theory and implementation (going by the presentation; I haven’t had time to check it out).

The main part of the cool keynote talk by Dittrich was on ‘the case for small data management’. From the who-wants-to-be-a-millionaire style popquiz question asking us to guess the typical size of a web database, it appeared to be only in the MBs (which most of us overestimated), and sort of explains why MySQL [that doesn’t scale well] is used rather widely. This results in a mismatch between problem size and tools. Another popquiz question answer: the 100MB RDF can just as well be handled efficiently by python, apparently. Interesting factoids, and one that has/should have as consequence we should be looking perhaps more into ‘small data’. He presented his work on PDbF as an example of that small data management. Very briefly, and based on my scribbles from the talk: its an enhanced pdf where you can access the raw data behind the graphs in the paper as well (it is embedded in it, with OLAP engine for posing the same and other queries), has a html rendering so you can hover over the graphs, and some more visualisation. If there’s software associated with the paper, it can go into the whole thing as well. Overall, that makes the data dynamic, manageable, traceable (from figure back to raw data), and re-analysable. The last part of his talk was on his experiences with the flipped classroom (more here; in German), but that was not nearly as fun as his analysis and criticism of the “big data” hype. I can’t recall exactly his plain English terms for the “four V4”, but the ‘lots of crappy XML data that changes’ remained of it in my memory bank (it was similar to the first 5 minutes of another keynote talk he gave).



Sure, despite the notes on big data, there were presentations in the sessions that could be categorised under ‘big data’. Among others, Ajantha Dahanayake presented a paper on a proposal for requirements engineering for big data [1]. Big data people tend to assume it is just there already for them to play with. But how did it get there, how to collect good data? The presentation outlined a scenario-based backwards analysis, so that one can reduce unnecessary or garbage data collection. Dahanayake also has a tool for it. Besides the requirements analysis for big data, there’s also querying the data and the desire to optimize it so as to keep having fast responses despite its large size. A solution to that was presented by Reuben Ndindi, whose paper also won the best paper award of the conference [2] (for the Malawians at CS@UCT: yes, the Reuben you know). It was scheduled in the very last session on Friday and my note-taking had grinded to a halt. If my memory serves me well, they make a metric database out of a regular database, compute the distances between the values, and evaluate the query on that, so as to obtain a good approximation of the true answer. There’s both the theoretical foundation and an experimental validation of the approach. In the end, it’s faster.

Data and schema evolution research is alive and well, as were time series and temporal aspects. Due to parallel sessions and my time constraints writing this post, I’ll mention only two on the evolution; one because it was a very good talk, the other because of the results of the experiments. Kai Herrmann presented the CoDEL language for database evolution [3]. A database and the application that uses it change (e.g., adding an attribute, splitting a table), which requires quite lengthy scripts with lots of SQL statements to execute. CoDEL does it with fewer statements, and the language has the good quality of being relationally complete [3]. Lesley Wevers approached the problem from a more practical angle and restricted to online databases. For instance, Wikipedia does make updates to their database schema, but they wouldn’t want to have Wikipedia go offline for that duration. How long does it take for which operation, in which RDBMS, and will it only slow down during the schema update, or block any use of the database entirely? The results obtained with MySQL, PostgreSQL and Oracle are a bit of a mixed bag [4]. It generated a lively debate during the presentation regarding the test set-up, what one would have expected the results to be, and the duration of blocking. There’s some work to do there yet.

The presentation of the paper I co-authored with Pablo Fillottrani [5] (informally described here) was scheduled for that dreaded 9am slot the morning after the social dinner. Notwithstanding, quite a few participants did show up, and they showed interest. The questions and comments had to do with earlier work we used as input (the metamodel), qualifying quality of the conceptual model, and that all too familiar sense of disappointment that so few language features were used widely in publicly available conceptual models (the silver lining of excellent prospects of runtime usage of conceptual models notwithstanding). Why this is so, I don’t know, though I have my guesses.


And the other things that make conference useful and fun to go to

In short: Networking, meeting up again with colleagues not seen for a while (ranging from a few months [Robert Wrembel] to some 8 years [Nadeem Iftikhar] and in between [a.o., Martin Rezk, Bernhard Thalheim]), meeting new people, exchanging ideas, and the social events.

2008 was the last time I’d been in France, for EMMSAD’08, where, looking back now, I coincidentally presented a paper also on conceptual modelling languages and logic [6], but one that looked at comprehensive feature coverage and comparing languages rather than unifying. It was good to be back in France, and it was nice to realise my understanding and speaking skills in French aren’t as rusty as I thought they were. The travels from South Africa are rather long, but definitely worthwhile. And it gives me time to write blog posts killing time on the airport.



(note: most papers don’t show up at Google scholar yet, hence, no links; they are on the Springer website, though)

[1] Noufa Al-Najran and Ajantha Dahanayake. A Requirements Specification Framework for Big Data Collection and Capture. ADBIS’15. Morzy et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9282, .

[2] Boris Cule, Floris Geerts and Reuben Ndindi. Space-bounded query approximation. ADBIS’15. Morzy et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9282, 397-414.

[3] Kai Herrmann, Hannes Voigt, Andreas Behrend and Wolfgang Lehner. CoDEL – A Relationally Complete Language for Database Evolution. ADBIS’15. Morzy et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9282, 63-76.

[4] Lesley Wevers, Matthijs Hofstra, Menno Tammens, Marieke Huisman and Maurice van Keulen. Analysis of the Blocking Behaviour of Schema Transformations in Relational Database Systems. ADBIS’15. Morzy et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9282, 169-183.

[5] Pablo R. Fillottrani and C. Maria Keet. Evidence-based Languages for Conceptual Data Modelling Profiles. ADBIS’15. Morzy et al. (Eds.). Springer LNCS vol. 9282, 215-229.

[6] C. Maria Keet. A formal comparison of conceptual data modeling languages. EMMSAD’08. CEUR-WS Vol-337, 25-39.

Reblogging 2007: AI and cultural heritage workshop at AI*IA’07

From the “10 years of keetblog – reblogging: 2007”: a happy serendipity moment when I stumbled into the AI & Cultural heritage workshop, which had its presentations in Italian. Besides the nice realisation I actually could understand most of it, I learned a lot about applications of AI to something really useful for society, like the robot-guide in a botanical garden, retracing the silk route, virtual Rome in the time of the Romans, and more.

AI and cultural heritage workshop at AI*IA’07, originally posted on Sept 11, 2007. For more recent content on AI & cultural heritage, see e.g., the workshop’s programme of 2014 (also collocated with AI*IA).


I’m reporting live from the Italian conference on artificial intelligence (AI*IA’07) in Rome (well, Villa Mondrogone in Frascati, with a view on Rome). My own paper on abstractions is rather distant from near-immediate applicability in daily life, so I’ll leave that be and instead write about an entertaining co-located workshop about applying AI technologies for the benefit of cultural heritage that, e.g., improve tourists’ experience and satisfaction when visiting the many historical sites, museums, and buildings that are all over Italy (and abroad).

I can remember well the handheld guide at the Alhambra back in 2001, which had a story by Mr. Irving at each point of interest, but there was only one long story and the same one for every visitor. Current research in AI & cultural heritage looks into solving issues how this can be personalized and be more interactive. Several directions are being investigated how this can be done. This ranges from the amount of information provided at each point of interest (e.g., for the art buff, casual American visitor who ‘does’ a city in a day or two, or narratives for children), to location-aware information display (the device will detect which point of interest you are closest to), to cataloguing and structuring the vast amount of archeological information, to the software monitoring of Oetzi the Iceman. The remainder of this blog post describes some of the many behind-the-scenes AI technologies that aim to give a tourist the desired amount of relevant information at the right time and right place (see the workshop website for the list of accepted papers). I’ll add more links later; any misunderstandings are mine (the workshop was held in Italian).

First something that relates somewhat to bioinformatics/ecoinformatics: the RoBotanic [1], which is a robot guide for botanical gardens – not intended to replace a human, but as an add-on that appeals in particular to young visitors and get them interested in botany and plant taxonomy. The technology is based on the successful ciceRobot that has been tested in the Archeological Museum Agrigento, but having to operate outside in a botanical garden (in Palermo), new issues have to be resolved, such as tuff powder, irregular surface, lighting, and leaves that interfere with the GPS system (for the robot to stop at plants of most interest). Currently, the RoBotanic provides one-way information, but in the near-future interaction will be built in so that visitors can ask questions as well (ciceRobot is already interactive). Both the RoBotanic and ciceRobot are customized off-the shelf robots.

Continuing with the artificial, there were three presentations about virtual reality. VR can be a valuable add-on to visualize lost or severely damaged property, timeline visualizations of rebuilding over old ruins (building a church over a mosque or vice versa was not uncommon), to prepare future restorations, and general reconstruction of the environment, all based on the real archeological information (not Hollywood fantasy and screenwriting). The first presentation [2] explained how the virtual reality tour of the Church of Santo Stefano in Bologna was made, using Creator, Vega, and many digital photos that served for the texture-feel in the VR tour. [3] provided technical details and software customization for VR & cultural heritage. On the other hand, the third presentation [4] was from a scientific point most interesting and too full of information to cover it all here. E. Bonini et al. investigated if, and if yes how, VR can give added-value. Current VR being insufficient for the cultural heritage domain, they look at how one can do an “expansion of reality” to give the user a “sense of space”. MUDing on the via Flaminia Antica in the virtual room in the National Museum in Rome should be possible soon (CNR-ITABC project started). Another issue came up during the concluded Appia Antica project for Roman era landscape VR: behaviour of, e.g., animals are now pre-coded and become boring to the user quickly. So, what these VR developers would like to see (i.e., future work) is to have technologies for autonomous agents integrated with VR software in order to make the ancient landscape & environment more lively: artificial life in the historical era one wishes, based on – and constrained by – scientific facts so as to be both useful for science and educational & entertaining for interested laymen.

A different strand of research is that of querying & reasoning, ontologies, planning and constraints.
Arbitrarily, I’ll start with the SIRENA project in Naples (the Spanish Quarter) [5], which aims to provide automatic generation of maintenance plans for historical residential buildings in order to make the current manual plans more efficient, cost effective, and maintain them just before a collapse. Given the UNI 8290 norms for technical descriptions of parts of buildings, they made an ontology, and used FLORA-2, Prolog, and PostgreSQL to compute the plans. Each element has its own interval for maintenance, but I didn’t see much of the partonomy, and don’t know how they deal with the temporal aspects. Another project [6] also has an ontology, in OWL-DL, but is not used for DL-reasoning reasoning yet. The overall system design, including use of Sesame, Jena, SPARQL can be read here and after server migration, their portal for the archeological e-Library will be back online. Another component is the webGIS for pre- and proto-historical sites in Italy, i.e., spatio-temporal stuff, and the hope is to get interesting inferences – novel information – from that (e.g., discover new connections between epochs). A basic online accessible version of webGIS is already running for the Silk Road.
A third different approach and usage of ontologies was presented in [7]. With the aim of digital archive interoperability in mind, D’Andrea et al. took the CIDOC-CRM common reference model for cultural heritage and enriched it with DOLCE D&S foundational ontology to better describe and subsequently analyse iconographic representations, from, in this particular work, scenes and reliefs from the meroitic time in Egypt.
With In.Tou.Sys for intelligent tourist systems [8] we move to almost-industry-grade tools to enhance visitor experience. They developed software for PDAs one takes around in a city, which then through GPS can provide contextualized information to the tourist, such as the building you’re walking by, or give suggestions for the best places to visit based on your preferences (e.g., only baroque era, or churches, or etc). The latter uses a genetic algorithm to compute the preference list, the former a mix of RDBMS on the server-side, OODBMS on the client (PDA) side, and F-Logic for the knowledge representation. They’re now working on the “admire” system, which has a time component built in to keep track of what the tourist has visited before so that the PDA-guide can provide comparative information. Also for city-wide scale and guiding visitors is the STAR project [9], bit different from the previous, it combines the usual tourist information and services – represented in a taxonomy, partonomy, and a set of constraints – with problem solving and a recommender system to make an individualized agenda for each tourist; so you won’t stand in front of a closed museum, be alerted of a festival etc. A different PDA-guide system was developed in the PEACH project for group visits in a museum. It provides limited personalized information, canned Q & A, and visitors can send messages to their friend and tag points of interest that are of particular interest.

Utterly different from the previous, but probably of interest to the linguistically-oriented reader is philology & digital documents. Or: how to deal with representing multiple versions of a document. Poets and authors write and rewrite, brush up, strike through etc. and it is the philologist’s task to figure out what constitutes a draft version. Representing the temporality and change of documents (words, order of words, notes about a sentence) is another problem, which [10] attempts to solve by representing it as a PERT/CPM graph structure augmented with labeling of edges, the precise definition of a ‘variant graph’, and a method of compactly storing it (ultimately stored in XML). The test case as with a poem from Valerio Magrelli.

The proceedings will be put online soon (I presume), is also available on CD (contact the WS organizer Luciana Bordoni), and probably several of the articles are online on the author’s homepages.

[1] A. Chella, I. Macaluso, D. Peri, L. Riano. RoBotanic: a Robot Guide for Botanical Gardens. Early Steps.
[2] G. Adorni. 3D Virtual Reality and the Cultural Heritage.
[3] M.C.Baracca, E.Loreti, S. Migliori, S. Pierattini. Customizing Tools for Virtual Reality Applications in the Cultural Heritage Field.
[4] E. Bonini, P. Pierucci, E. Pietroni. Towards Digital Ecosystems for the Transmission and Communication of Cultural Heritage: an Epistemological Approach to Artificial Life.
[5] A. Calabrese, B. Como, B. Discepolo, L. Ganguzza , L. Licenziato, F. Mele, M. Nicolella, B. Stangherling, A. Sorgente, R Spizzuoco. Automatic Generation of Maintenance Plans for Historical Residential Buildings.
[6] A.Bonomi, G. Mantegari, G.Vizzari. Semantic Querying for an Archaeological E-library.
[7] A. D’Andrea, G. Ferrandino, A. Gangemi. Shared Iconographical Representations with Ontological Models.
[8] L. Bordoni, A. Gisolfi, A. Trezza. INTOUSYS: a Prototype Personalized Tourism System.
[9] D. Magro. Integrated Promotion of Cultural Heritage Resources.
[10] D. Schmidt, D. Fiormonte. Multi-Version Documents: a Digitisation Solution for Textual Cultural Heritage Artefacts

Forum for AI Research 2015, Cape Town

In 10 day’s time, the (CAIR-driven) Forum for Artificial Intelligence Research 2015 (FAIR’15) Workshop will be held at UCT in Cape Town, South Africa, from March 30 to April 2. There are still some spaces available; registration is free, but please register (for catering purposes). What will you get for this ‘bargain price’? A lot of food for the mind!

FAIR’15 follows the same format as the previous 7 editions that went under various acronyms since 2008 (among others, MOWS, MOSS, MAIS, FAIR), with a mini-course, a tutorial, and postgraduate student presentations. This edition has the following on offer.

Ulrike Sattler (University of Manchester, UK) will present a mini-course on automated reasoners in the mornings. She will go into the details of what really happens when you click that menu option “start reasoner” and Protégé’s “?” that explains the deductions, and what are the factors that influence the reasoner’s performance.

David Toman (University of Waterloo, Canada) will present a 2-hour tutorial on using knowledge representation and reasoning (logic) for query optimization in relational databases and ontology-based data access (i.e., advanced aspects of database systems implementation).

Further, there are several sessions with postgraduate student presentations. Among others, Catherine Chavula will talk about new results (cf. [1]) in multilingual ontologies, Zubeida Khan will talk about foundational ontology interchangeability (details in [2]), and (very recently MSc cum laude graduated!) Nasubo Ongoma will present her thesis on logic-based temporal conceptual data modeling (including material from [3]). Gavin Rens will talk about probabilistic belief change, Kody Moodley on defeasible reasoning for description logics, Henriette Harmse about scenario testing with OWL, and Nishal Morar on taxonomic classification.

Aurona Gerber will give an overview of Data Science at CSIR, and for some more variety in the programme, I’ll talk about the stuff ontology [4]. Check the programme for all titles of the presentations and the abstracts of the mini-course and tutorial.

An important aim of FAIR is the networking among people in Southern Africa, and share and discuss informally our research in (predominantly) KR&R and related areas—so if the above topics sound interesting, or made you curious, or you would like to meet a potential MSc/PhD supervisor, you’re welcome to join (note: some basic knowledge of logics will be needed to understand the talks, though). If you have any questions, please don’t hesitate to contact one of the organisers, Arina Britz and me.


[1] Chavula, C., Keet, C.M. Is Lemon Sufficient for Building Multilingual Ontologies for Bantu Languages? 11th OWL: Experiences and Directions Workshop (OWLED’14). Keet, C.M., Tamma, V. (Eds.). Riva del Garda, Italy, Oct 17-18, 2014. CEUR-WS vol. 1265, 61-72.

[2] Khan, Z.C., Keet, C.M. Feasibility of automated foundational ontology interchangeability. 19th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW’14). K. Janowicz et al. (Eds.). 24-28 Nov, 2014, Linkoping, Sweden. Springer LNAI 8876, 225-237.

[3] Keet, C.M., Ongoma, E.A.N. Temporal Attributes: their Status and Subsumption. Asia-Pacific Conference on Conceptual Modelling (APCCM’15). Koehler, H., Saeki, M. (Eds.), Conferences in Research and Practice in Information Technology (CRPIT), Vol. 165. 27-30 January, 2015, Sydney, Australia.

[4] Keet, C.M. A core ontology of macroscopic stuff. 19th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW’14). K. Janowicz et al. (Eds.). 24-28 Nov, 2014, Linkoping, Sweden. Springer LNAI vol. 8876, 209-224.

Pleasant SAARMSTE’15 in Maputo

The 23rd annual conference of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education, held in Maputo, Mozambique concluded last Friday, after some 200 presentations in 8 parallel session by academics from about 18 countries (mostly SACD region, some USA, UK, Norway, Japan, Turkey, and new Zealand). It was a stimulating event by a welcoming community.

Most maths & science teaching research presentations were concerned with “what goes wrong, and why?” and “which interventions (hypothesised improvements), and do they work?”. I’ll describe a brief sampling of the presentations spread over the 3.5 days to illustrate it. For instance, Frikkie George from UWC looked into why teachers in secondary schools do, or do not, use computer-assisted learning in their teaching [1]. To look at the negative side (for one may want to use technology in the classroom and wonder why it is not always happening that much): this was due to, mainly, the lack of experience with the technology, of on-site support, of availability of the technologies, and of lack of time to integrate it in the curriculum.

A recurring and emerging research theme on the problem-side of things was the “LoLT”–language of teaching and learning (formerly known as ‘medium of instruction’)–, as many learners in the classroom in SADC countries are being taught in a language that is not their mother tongue (called ‘home language’ in South Africa). There were several presentations on this issue, and a whole symposium was dedicated to it. Kathija Adam from NMMU presented a useful literature review [2], which was part of an inter-institutional funded project that started last year, so the main solutions are yet to come. (and I’ll leave it with this ‘cliffhanger’, as much more can be said about it, deserving its own blog post).

There was also the issue of “Indigenous Knowledge Systems (IKS) in the class room and in science”, and I went to a few of those presentations. It is a touchy subject in this region of the world, and to complicate matters, different presenters and attendees had quite different ideas and assumptions about it. From the ‘light’ version: e.g., IKS & weather by Alvin Riffel (also from UWC) in the way like, say, “an evening false moonbow brings rain tomorrow”1, which can then be used as an introduction to the scientific explanation of the phenomenon, relating everyday life observations to science in the classroom [3]. To the ‘heavy’ and un(counter?)productive: a big, fat, loud-mouthed militant claiming that ‘everything is science, including the spirits’ and lambasting ‘and if you go for western science [cf. African], then you are one of those bad oppressive colonialists, racist!’, nipping in the bud any conversation about IKS and science (I’m not exaggerating). Another recurring theme was pedagogical content knowledge (PCK).

My own presentation was about an experiment in peer instruction that, in short, didn’t have the desired effect (increasing class attendance), but was useful in other ways nevertheless (read the 13-page paper for the details [4]). This work will be extended this year, partially thanks to a UCT Teaching With Technology grant to develop a better functioning software-based audience response system, and more concept tests.

Other than that, it was hot in Maputo, full of friendly people, and good food and coffee. The SAARMSTE choir gave its best during the social dinner, which was also spiced up with some dancing. Friday afternoon after the conference’s closing ceremony, I planned to finally go to the internet cafe to check emails, but the bus was for the excursion through Maputo only, so that plan was changed (the alternative was a 20-minute walk in the blistering sun at 2pm and get burned, again). There may not be a whole lot of touristy places in the city, but it mattered not, as we had a good time together anyway. Also contributing to a great stay in Maputo was my choice on being frugal with the accommodation, opting for Fatima’s Place backpackers rather than a fancy hotel (choices: expensive and even more expensive): unlike the conference participant who was lamenting a ‘dull 15-hour stay at the hotel util the conference’s next day’, I had great company in the backpackers’ lively common area in the (late) evening.

The next SAARMSTE in early 2016 will be in Pretoria—a location not even close as appealing as Maputo, but a warm welcome will be guaranteed by its participants (as it was also welcoming in Cape Town in 2013 when I attended the conference).


[1] George, F., Ogunnniyi, M. Teacher’s perceptions on the use of ICT in a CAL environment to enhance the conception of scientific concepts. 23rd Annual Meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (SAARMSTE’15), 13-16 January 2015, Maputo, Mozambique.

[2] Adam, K., Africa, A., Woods, T., Johnson, S. Exploring issues related to language in multilingual South African Science classrooms: a literature review. 23rd Annual Meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (SAARMSTE’15), 13-16 January 2015, Maputo, Mozambique.

[3] Riffel, A.D. Examining the impact of dialogical argumentation on grade 9 learners’ beliefs about weather and indigenous knowledge. 23rd Annual Meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (SAARMSTE’15), Huillet, E. (Ed.), pp366-379. 13-16 January 2015, Maputo, Mozambique.

[4] Keet, C.M. An Experiment with Peer Instruction in Computer Science to Enhance Class Attendance. 23rd Annual Meeting of the Southern African Association for Research in Mathematics, Science, and Technology Education (SAARMSTE’15), Huillet, E. (Ed.), pp319-331. 13-16 January 2015, Maputo, Mozambique.

1The “false moonbow”—called corona, a circular ‘rainbow’ around the moon—phrase I just made up, and is similar to a reading-of-the-sky we have in the Netherlands, and on January 4 we saw an amazing one here, admiring it during a neighbourhood braai, wondering what it might mean. The next day, I made it to work through the heavy rain (in summer!) and looking it up to see what it meant and why… reality very much confirmed the theory, the whole day long.

FAIR’14 and ‘modelling relationships’ tutorial

After a weekend of ‘loadshedding’ (one of those South African euphemisms) I’m posting a few notes on the Forum on Artificial Intelligence Research 2014 (FAIR’14) that took place from 3-5 Dec 2014 at Stellenbosch University, which was organised by CAIR and co-located with the FASTAR/Espresso Workshop 2014, which, in turn, was co-located with PRASA, AFLaT, and RobMech 2014 in Cape Town. FAIR’14 consisted of a presentation by Sergei Obiedkov of the Higher School of Economics, Russia, a tutorial on modelling relationships in ontologies by me, and a course on computational social choice theory by Ulle Endriss from the ILLC, University of Amsterdam, The Netherlands.

While not quite relevant to my current research except for judgement aggregation at the end (for crowdsourcing), Ulle’s course was one of those events that made me think “[why didn’t/if only] I was exposed to this material before?!”, when I had to make choices as to what to study and specialise in (though, admitted, once knowing about the math with game theory and applying that to peace negotiations in my MA pdf, I still went on in CS with KR&R and ontologies). Ulle’s course combined socially relevant topics, such as the fair allocation of resources and voting systems, with solid, precise, logic- and math-based representations and computation. Besides the engaging content, he’s also good at teaching it. The content and slides are a condensed version of his MSc course on social choice theory and are available online here, which also has links to related reading material.

I tried to condense into 2 hours some aspects of modelling relationships in ontologies. It started with some problems and questions, proceeded to touching upon the nature of relations and some detail of the formal semantics, common relationships (with some detail about mereotopology), and closing with some practical modelling guidance and reasoner performance when modelling it one way or another. It being a tutorial, and not all participants had Protégé installed, I resorted to a peer instruction audience response system to incorporate interactively some questions about modelling some relationships. The slides are available online (though also here the text on the slides only partially reflect what I’ve talked about).

Other than that, there’s always the social component. Despite the weird time-warp that Stellenbosch town constitutes, it was really nice to catch up with former colleagues and to see the progress of postgrads of UKZN, to hear about the future of CAIR, and that it’s a small world even when meeting people new to me. And the food & wine was delicious. The train travel back to Cape Town took a bit longer than the schedule said it ought to be, but I recommend it nevertheless.