Ontology development has its processes and procedures—conducting a domain analysis, the implementation, maintenance, and so on—which have been developed since the mid 1990s. These high-level information systems-like methodologies don’t tell you what and how to add the knowledge to the ontology, however, i.e., the ontology authoring stage is a ‘just do it’, but not how. There are, perhaps surprisingly, few methods for how to do that; notably, FORZA uses domain and range constraints and the reasoner to propose a suitable part-whole relation  and advocatus diaboli zooms in on disjointness constraints among classes . In a way, they all use what can be considered as tests on the ontology before adding an axiom. This smells of notions that are well-known in software engineering: unit tests, test-driven development (TDD), and Agile, with the latter two relying on different methodologies cf. the earlier ones (waterfall, iterative, and similar).
Some of those software engineering approaches have been adjusted and adopted for ontology engineering; e.g., the Agile-inspired OntoMaven that uses the standard reasoning services as tests , eXtreme Design with ODPs  that have been prepared previously, and Vrandecic and Gangemi’s early exploration of possibilities for unit tests . Except for Warrender & Lord’s TDD tests for subsumption , they are all test-last approaches (design, author, test), rather than a test-first approach (test, author, test). The test-first approach is called test-driven development in software engineering , which has been ported to conceptual modelling recently as well . TDD is a step up from a “add something and lets see what the reasoner says” stance, because one has to think and check upfront first before doing. (Competency questions can help with that, but they don’t say how to add the knowledge.) The question that arises, then, is how such a TDD approach would look like for ontology development. Some of the more detailed questions to be answered are (from ):
- Given the TDD procedure for programming in software engineering, then what does that mean for ontologies during ontology authoring?
- TDD uses mock objects for incomplete parts of the code, and mainly for methods; is there a parallel to it in ontology development, or can that aspect of TDD be ignored?
- In what way, and where, (if at all) can this be integrated as a methodological step in existing ontology engineering methodologies?
We—Agnieszka Lawrynowicz from Poznan University of Technology in Poland and I—answer these questions in our paper that was recently accepted at the 13th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’16), to be held in May 2016 in Crete, Greece: Test-Driven Development of Ontologies . In short: we specified tests for the OWL 2 DL language features and basic types of axioms one can add, implemented it as a Protégé plug-in, and tested it on performance with 67 ontologies (result: great). The tool and test data can be downloaded from Agnieszka’s ARISTOTELES project page.
Now slightly less brief than that one-liner. The tests—like for class subsumption, domain and range, a property chain—can be specified in two principal ways, called TBox tests and ABox tests. The TBox tests rely solely on knowledge represented in the TBox, whereas for the ABox tests, mock individuals are explicitly added for a particular TBox axiom. For instance, the simple existential quantification, as shown below, where the TBox query is denoted in SPARQL-OWL notation.
For the implementation, there is (1) a ‘wrapping’ component that includes creating the mock entities, checking the condition (line 2 in the TBox test example in the figure above, and line 4 in ABox TDD test), returning the TDD test result, and cleaning up afterward; and (2) the interaction with the ontology doing the actual testing, such as querying the ontology and class and instance classification. There are several options to realise component (2) of the TBox TDD tests. The query can be sent to, e.g., OWL-BGP  that uses SPARQL-OWL and Hermit to return the answer (line 1), but one also could use just the OWL API and send it to the automated reasoner, among other options.
Because OWL-BGP and the other options didn’t cater for the tests with OWL’s object properties, such as a property chain, so a full implementation would require extending current tools, we decided to first examine performance of the different options for (2) for those tests that could be implemented with current tools so as to get an idea of which approach would be the best to extend, rather than gambling on one, implement all, and go on with user testing. This TDD tool got the unimaginative name TDDonto and can be installed as a Protégé plugin. We tested the performance with 67 TONES ontology repository ontologies. The outcome of that is that the TBox-based SPARQL-OWL approach is faster than the ABox TDD tests (except for class disjointness; see figure below), and the OWL API + reasoner for the TBox TDD tests is again faster in general. These differences are bigger with larger ontologies (see paper for details).
Test computation times per test type (ABox versus TBox-based SPARQL-OWL) and per the kind of the tested axiom (source: ).
Finally, can this TDD be simply ‘plugged in’ into one of the existing methodologies? No. As with TDD for software engineering, it has its own sequence of steps. An initial sketch is shown in the figure below. It outlines only the default scenario, where the knowledge to be added wasn’t there already and adding it doesn’t result in conflicts.
Sketch of a possible ontology lifecycle that focuses on TDD, and the steps of the TDD procedure summarised in key terms (source: ).
The “select scenario” has to do with what gets fed into the TDD tests, and therewith also where and how TDD could be used. We specified three of them: either (a) the knowledge engineer provides an axiom, (b) a domain expert fills in some template (e.g., the ‘all-some’ one) and that software generates the axiom for the domain ontology (e.g.,
), or (c) someone wrote a competency question that is either manually or automatically converted into an axiom. The “refactoring” could include a step for removing a property from a subclass when it is added to its superclass. The “regression testing” considers previous tests and what to do when any conflicts may have arisen (which may need an interaction with step 5).
There is quite a bit of work yet to be done on TDD for ontologies, but at least there is now a first comprehensive basis to work from. Both Agnieszka and I plan to go to ESWC’16, so I hope to see you there. If you want more details or read the tests with a nicer layout than how it is presented in the ESWC16 paper, then have a look at the extended version  or contact us, or leave a comment below.
 Keet, C.M., Khan, M.T., Ghidini, C. Ontology Authoring with FORZA. 22nd ACM International Conference on Information and Knowledge Management (CIKM’13). ACM proceedings. Oct. 27 – Nov. 1, 2013, San Francisco, USA. pp569-578.
 Ferre, S. and Rudolph, S. (2012). Advocatus diaboli exploratory enrichment of ontologies with negative constraints. In ten Teije, A. et al., editors, 18th International Conference on Knowledge Engineering and Knowledge Management (EKAW’12), volume 7603 of LNAI, pages 42-56. Springer. Oct 8-12, Galway, Ireland
 Paschke, A., Schaefermeier, R. Aspect OntoMaven – aspect-oriented ontology development and configuration with OntoMaven. Tech. Rep. 1507.00212v1, Free University of Berlin (July 2015)
 Blomqvist, E., Sepour, A.S., Presutti, V. Ontology testing — methodology and tool. In: Proc. of EKAW’12. LNAI, vol. 7603, pp. 216-226. Springer (2012)
 Vrandecic, D., Gangemi, A. Unit tests for ontologies. In: OTM workshops 2006. LNCS, vol. 4278, pp. 1012-1020. Springer (2006)
 Warrender, J.D., Lord, P. How, What and Why to test an ontology. Technical Report 1505.04112, Newcastle University (2015), http://arxiv.org/abs/1505.04112
 Beck, K.: Test-Driven Development: by example. Addison-Wesley, Boston, MA (2004)
 Tort, A., Olive, A., Sancho, M.R. An approach to test-driven development of conceptual schemas. Data & Knowledge Engineering 70, 1088-1111 (2011)
 Keet, C.M., Lawrynowicz, A. Test-Driven Development of Ontologies. 13th Extended Semantic Web Conference (ESWC’16). Springer LNCS. 29 May – 2 June, 2016, Crete, Greece. (in print)
 Kollia, I., Glimm, B., Horrocks, I. SPARQL Query Answering over OWL Ontologies. In: Proc, of ESWC’11. LNCS, vol. 6643, pp. 382-396. Springer (2011)
 Keet, C.M., Lawrynowicz, A. Test-Driven Development of Ontologies (extended version). Technical Report, Arxiv.org http://arxiv.org/abs/1512.06211. Dec 19, 2015.